Dr DIMITRIOS – JAMES MANOS

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ABOUT HERBS AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

 

DISEASES & MEDICAL CONDITIONS (WITH ALPHABETICAL ORDER) IN WHICH HERBS AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS HAVE BEEN STUDIED

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Dr Dimitrios – James Manos (MD)

1 April 2014

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(with the ΄΄search΄΄// ΄΄Find΄΄ option of your computer you can find easy a herb or a dietary supplement or a specific disease)

 

NOTE FROM THE AUTHOR

 

The information presented here is intended for educational purpose only. It should not be used to diagnose, cure treat or prevent disease. Before using any herb or dietary supplement, it is recommended that you consult with your own health care provider.

 

Some herbs/ dietary supplements are mentioned with their scientific name and other with their common name and other with both their scientific and common name.

 

The following catalogue refers to diseases and medical conditions in which herbs and dietary supplements have been studied. That does not mean in any way that the herbs or dietary supplements that are mentioned here are a treatment for these diseases, but only that they have been studied for these diseases and in some cases have shown beneficial effects. Some referred herbs// dietary supplements here have only theoretical role on the treatment or prevention of a disease that is suggested by the authors of a study. Moreover, some published studies here are in vitro and others are in vivo, or both in vivo and in vitro, or epidemiological// Cohort based, or reviews or meta-analysis. Not all studies are well - designed. Many studies are poor designed (e.g. with low sample, short duration, or are non – placebo controlled double blind etc.), so their conclusions are less reliable. The Cochrane reviews and the well designed meta-analysis lead to safer conclusions, however they may be debated by following studies.

 

We must all have in mind that studies are not always conclusive. Some studies show beneficial effects of a herb//dietary supplement, but other studies show less or no effectiveness. Medicine is changing every day. More studies and meta –analysis are needed to ascertain the effectiveness of the herbs// dietary supplements for the medical conditions that are mentioned here. 

 

In some cases, the properties that are attributed here to a herb// dietary supplement are based on its traditional use (that is not always scientifically studied) or its suggested// proposed (often by a study) use or are anecdotal. Studies referred here are of any kind e.g. in vitro, ex vivo, in vivo (animal or human), review, meta-analysis, epidemiological etc.

 

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which are randomized double blind, placebo-controlled, of good quality are more reliable to draw up a conclusion.

 

Any medical condition should be treated medically, as appropriate. It must not be self treated with herbs or dietary supplements, without the guidance of a doctor and an expert (e.g. a herbalist). Many medical conditions that are referred here may be life threatening (e.g. poisoning or heart failure) and must be treated by a doctor and not self treated with a herb or a dietary supplement. The following herbs and dietary supplements are (most) still under scientific investigation, so things may be not clear about their indications, contraindications, side effects, interactions (with drugs, food and other herbs// dietary supplements) and proper dosage.  

A pregnant or a breast-feeding woman should always ask her doctor before she takes a herb or a dietary supplement.

Cancer should be treated with conventional medications. People should not use alternative therapies alone to treat cancer. If someone chooses to use complementary therapies along with conventional cancer treatment, he/she should make sure to tell all his/her doctors about this.

With bold green color are the herbs/dietary supplements that the author thinks, according to his personal view, that perhaps are more efficient and/or have been studied more extensively for a specific medical condition, however this does not mean that they are definitely better than the other herbs/dietary supplements, since evidence is still not conclusive for most of them.

Herbs & dietary supplements can trigger side effects and can interact with other herbs, dietary supplements, or medications. For these reasons, herbs should be taken with care, under the supervision of a health care provider.

 

DISEASES & MEDICAL CONDITIONS (WITH ALPHABETICAL ORDER) IN WHICH HERBS AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS HAVE BEEN STUDIED

 

 

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA): Red yeast rice [a study concluded that Chinese red yeast rice (RYR) extract administration suppressed angiotensin II (AngII) -induced abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and atherosclerosis associated with regulating inflammation responses independent of lipid-lowering effects, thus, Red yeast rice may have preventive potential for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)// studies have shown that red yeast rice contains substances that are similar to prescription statin medications: one of these substances, called monacolin K, has the same makeup as the ΄΄statin΄΄ drug lovastatin (statins are prescribed to lower LDL cholesterol levels and help to reduce the risk of heart disease)// researchers are not sure if the cholesterol-lowering effect of red yeast rice is due to the presence of lovastatin or other compounds in red yeast rice, but because many red yeast rice supplements did contain lovastatin, the FDA (Food and Drug Administration of the USA) considered them to be drugs, not supplements, and required that manufacturers remove any red yeast rice products that contained lovastatin from the market// FDAs position is that red yeast rice products that contain monacolin K are identical to the drug lovastatin and, thus, subject to regulation as a drug]

 

Acetaminophen (paracetamol) poisoning: ΄΄Poisoning from Acetaminophen (paracetamol)΄΄

 

Acme: Zinc (taking zinc by mouth or applying it to the skin in an ointment that also contains erythromycin seems to help clear up acne)

 

Acrodermatitis enteropathica (a genetic inherited skin disorder affecting zinc absorption): Zinc

 

Acute respiratory infection (ARI) prevention: American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) (a human study concluded that the proprietary extract of Panax quinquefolius, CVT-E002 was well tolerated. It did not reduce the number of acute respiratory illness (ARI) days or antibiotic use; however, there was a trend toward reduced rates of moderate to severe ARI and significantly less sore throat, suggesting that the increased rate of seroconversion most likely reflects CVT-E002-enhanced antibody responses)

 

 

 

Adaptogens (that protect the body against various stresses, including physical, mental, or emotional stress// adaptogens are a substances that are supposed to help the body better cope with stress, either mental or physical): Astragalus (e.g. Astragalus membranaceus), Panax ginseng [Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) is sometimes called an ΄΄adaptogen΄΄, namely a substancethat helps the body deal with physical or mental stress], Holy basil (Tulsi), Rhodiola rosea (the adaptogenic activities of Rhodiola rosea have been attributed primarily to its ability to influence levels and activity of monoamines and opioid peptides such as beta-endorphins), Schisandra chinensis (Wu wei zi// pharmacological studies on animals have shown that Schizandra increases physical working capacity and affords a stress-protective effect against a broad spectrum of harmful factors including heat shock, skin burn, cooling, frostbite, immobilisation, swimming under load in an atmosphere with decreased air pressure, aseptic inflammation, irradiation, and heavy metal intoxication// the phytoadaptogen exerts an effect on the central nervous, sympathetic, endocrine, immune, respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal systems, on the development of experimental atherosclerosis, on blood sugar and acid-base balance, and on uterus myotonic activity), Eleuthero (called wrongly by some as Siberian ΄΄ginseng΄΄// Eleuthero is widely used in Russia as an ΄΄adaptogen΄΄)

 

Addiction: see ΄΄Drug Addiction΄΄, ΄΄Withdrawal symptoms in people who need to stop taking benzodiazepines or narcotic drugs (opiates)΄΄ and ΄΄Withdrawal symptoms in people who are quitting smoking΄΄

 

Adjustment disorder with anxious mood: a multi-ingredient product (Euphytose EUP// herbs in the product include passionflower, crataegus, ballota, and valerian, which have mild sedative effects, and cola and paullinia, which have stimulant effects)

 

Advanced Life Support (ALS): see ΄΄Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)// Advanced Life Support (ALS)΄΄

 

 

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs): See ΄΄ Anti-glycating agents΄΄

 

Age – related cognitive impairment/ decline: Acetylcarnitine (acetyl – L – carnitine, ALC or ALCAR), Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi// in as study it decreased the rate of forgetting of newly acquired information), Citicoline [CDP – Choline// INN.// Citicoline supplementation has been used to ameliorate memory disturbances in older people and those with Alzheimer's disease and it has been proven to be able to stimulate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity.// A study that investigated whether oral citicoline can increase PtdCho synthesis in the brains of older subjects concluded that the increases in phosphodiesters seen in this study indicate that phospholipid synthesis and turnover were stimulated by 6 weeks of oral citicoline. These results in humans support previous in vitro and animal studies and suggest that the administration of oral citicoline may be of use in reversing age-related changes in the brain.// Citicoline has been studied for the treatment of senile cognitive impairment, either secondary to degenerative diseases (e.g. Alzheimer’s disease) or to chronic cerebral vascular disease], Concord grape juice [a human study concluded that supplementation with Concord grape juice may enhance cognitive function for older adults with early memory decline.// A study in rats that investigated the beneficial effects of two concentrations of Concord grape juice (10% and 50%) for their effectiveness in reversing age-related deficits in behavioral and neuronal functions in aged rats showed that rats that drank the 10% grape juice from age 19 to 21 months had improvements in oxotremorine enhancement of K+-evoked release of dopamine from striatal slices and in cognitive performance on the Morris water maze, and the ones that drank the 50% grape juice produced improvements in motor function.// In a human study in older adult subjects with mild cognitive impairment, participants who consumed grape juice showed reduced semantic interference on memory tasks; relatively greater activation in anterior and posterior regions of the right hemisphere was also observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging in the grape juice treated subjects – these findings provide further evidence that Concord grape juice can enhance neurocognitive function in older adults with mild memory decline], Ginkgo Biloba [It's not as clear whether ginkgo helps memory in healthy people who have normal, age-related memory loss. Some studies have found slight benefits, while other studies have found it didn’t help at all. Some studies have found that ginkgo helps improve memory and thinking in young and middle-aged people who are healthy. The dose that works best seems to be 240 mg per day. There is no proof that taking ginkgo will help protect against dementia./// Taking ginkgo leaf extract by mouth seems to improve thinking skills in some elderly people with mild to moderate age-related memory loss or thinking problems. Ginkgo leaf extract might modestly improve short-term visual memory and speed of mental processing in non-demented people with age-related memory loss], green tea, L- Carnitine (it may increase cognitive functions in the elderly), alpha – lipoic acid, phosphatidylcholine [a study that investigated the biochemical and biophysical events of phosphatidylcholine (PC) plus vitamin B12 in the brain of senescence (senescence or biological aging is the change in the biology of an organism as it ages after its maturity) – accelerated mouse (SAM) substrain SAMP8 showed the potential benefit of phosphatidylcholine (PC) combined with vitamin B12 as a dietary supplement], phosphatidylserine [the results of a study suggests that phosphatidylserine may be a promising candidate for treating memory loss in later life//another study concluded that Soybean-derived phosphatidylserine is considered as safety food ingredient and 6 months of Soy-PS supplementation could improve the memory functions of the elderly with memory complaints// another study that evaluated the efficacy of a novel preparation of Phosphatidylserine containing omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) attached to its backbone (PS-DHA// DHA is an omega 3 fatty acid) in non-demented elderly with memory complaints concluded that the preparation PS-DHA may improve cognitive performance in non-demented elderly with memory complaints- also post-hoc analysis (looking at the data—after the experiment) of subgroups suggests that participants with higher baseline cognitive status were most likely to respond to PS-DHA], Spirulina, St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum// St. John’s Wort in a study alleviated age-related long-term memory impairment in rats), Vinpocetine (in three studies of older adults with memory problems associated with poor brain circulation or dementia-related disease, vinpocetine produced significantly more improvement than a placebo in performance on global cognitive tests reflecting attention, concentration, and memory), garlic/ Aged garlic extract (AGE) (also known as ‘Kyolic’) (Aged garlic extract may have a role in protecting against loss of brain function in aging and possess other antiaging effects, as suggested by its ability to increase cognitive functions, memory and longevity in a senescence-accelerated mouse model), ginseng [Ginsenoside Rg1, a major active component of ginseng, is often recommended for its antiaging effects. A study employed a scheme of Rg1 supplementation for female C57BL/6J mice, which started at the age of 12 months and ended at 24 months, to investigate the effects of Rg1 supplementation on the cognitive performance. The study found that Rg1 supplementation improved the performance of aged mice in behavior test and significantly upregulated the expression of synaptic plasticity-associated proteins in hippocampus. These data provide further support for ginsenoside Rg1 treatment of cognitive degeneration during aging], apple [studies have shown that supplementation with apple juice concentrate (AJC) alleviates oxidative damage and cognitive decline in adult (9 –12 months) mice lacking ApoE (as a model of increased oxidative stress) and in normal aged (2 – 2.5 years) mice when challenged with a vitamin-deficient, oxidative stress-promoting diet. In a new study the authors demonstrated that AJC, administered in drinking water, maintains acetylcholine levels that otherwise decline when adult and aged mice are maintained on the above deficient diet. Spectrophotometric assay of acetylcholine levels revealed a significant decline in homogenates of combined frontal cortex and hippocampus for all mice maintained on the deficient diet, and a prevention of this decline in mice maintained on the deficient diet when supplemented with AJC. These findings provide a likely mechanism by which consumption of antioxidant-rich foods such as apples can prevent the decline in cognitive performance that accompanies dietary and genetic deficiencies and aging]

 

 

Age – related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD; an eye disease that occurs when the macula, the part of the retina that is responsible for central vision, starts to deteriorate.// Macular degeneration, often called age-related macular degeneration or AMD, is an eye disease that affects the retina, the back part of the eye.  The number one cause of blindness in the Unites States, AMD is a degenerative eye disease that gets worse as time goes on): anthocyanidins, beta-carotene, bilberry (a study in rats concluded that the OXYS rat strain is the useful model for macular degeneration and senile cataract and long-term supplementation with bilberry extract (BE) is effective in the prevention of macular degeneration and cataract), Ginkgo Biloba [Ginkgo biloba extract contains two constituents (flavonoids and terpenoids) which have antioxidant properties and it is believed these may help to slow down the progression of AMD./// The flavonoids found in ginkgo may help stop or reduce some problems with the retina. Some studies suggest that ginkgo may help preserve vision in those with AMD./// There is some early evidence that ginkgo leaf extract might improve symptoms and distance vision in people with AMD./// A study that investigated the therapeutic efficacy of Ginkgo special extract Egb 761 on 99 patients with impaired vision due to senile, dry macular degeneration demonstrated marked improvement of the study participants' vision in both treatment groups already after four weeks, with more pronounced improvements in group I (acuity increases by 0.13 in group I vs. 0.10 in group II after 24 weeks); the results demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of Ginkgo special extract Egb 761 in patients with senile, dry macular degeneration, with obvious benefits in every-day life], the AREDS 1 formula: vitamin C, vitamin E, beta carotene, Zinc and copper [the National Eye Institute’s Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) found that taking a specific high dose formula of antioxidants and zinc (the daily dose is: 500 milligrams of vitamin C// 400 International Units of vitamin E// 15 milligrams of beta-carotene// 80 milligrams of zinc as zinc oxide// and two milligrams of copper as cupric oxide) may delay or prevent intermediate age-related macular degeneration from progressing to the advanced stage], lutein and zeaxanthin [lutein may prevent and decrease the risk for AMD// a study concluded that restoring the anti-oxidative capabilities of the retina by increasing intake of lutein and zeaxanthin reduces the likelihood of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataract// a study concluded that increasing the consumption of foods rich in certain carotenoids may decrease the risk of developing advanced or exudative age-related macular degeneration - among the specific carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin were most strongly associated with a reduced risk for AMD// One study found that people with AMD who took lutein alone or in combination with other antioxidants had less vision loss, while those who took placebo had no change// the National Eye Institute (NEI) has begun AREDS-2 trials focused on the addition of lutein, zeaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids to the original AREDS formula// the findings of the Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial (LAST) support a possible therapeutic role of lutein in age-related macular degeneration (AMD)], lycopene, melatonin (a study concluded that melatonin seems to protect the retina and to delay macular degeneration), omega – 3 fatty acids// fish oil [a questionnaire given to more than 3 000 people over the age of 49 found that those who ate more fish were less likely to have macular degeneration than those who ate less fish// also a clinical study comparing 350 people with macular degeneration to 500 without the eye disease found that those with a healthy dietary balance of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and more fish in their diets were less likely to have macular degeneration// about macular degeneration, although studies suggest that eating fish (which includes the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA) may reduce the risk of macular degeneration, a recent study including 2 large groups of men and women found that diets rich in LNA (alpha – linolenic acid) may increase the risk of this disease], Saffron (dried stigmas of the plant Crocus sativus// a study indicated that short-term Saffron supplementation improves retinal flicker sensitivity in early age-related macular degeneration), Wolfberry (Goji berry// it contains beta – carotene and zeaxanthin// a human study showed that zeaxanthin in whole wolfberries is bioavailable and that intake of a modest daily amount markedly increases fasting plasma zeaxanthin levels// another study showed that homogenisation of wolfberry in hot skimmed milk results in a formulation that has a 3-fold enhanced bioavailability of zeaxanthin compared with both the ΄΄classical΄΄ hot water and warm skimmed milk treatment of the berries// another human study showed that daily dietary supplementation with goji berry for 90 days increases plasma zeaxanthin and antioxidant levels as well as protects from hypopigmentation and soft drusen accumulation in the macula of elderly subjects), Zinc [according to the AREDS study (see above), zinc can be part of an effective treatment for the age – related macular degeneration// in the same study, people at high risk of the disease who took dietary supplements containing only zinc also had a lower risk of getting advanced AMD than those who did not take zinc dietary supplements// a human study showed that both zinc and antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E and beta carotene) plus zinc significantly reduced the odds of developing advanced AMD in this higher-risk group – the only statistically significant reduction in rates of at least moderate visual acuity loss occurred in persons assigned to receive antioxidants plus zinc], folic acid, vitamin B, grape seed (Vitis vinifera), dark leafy greens, astaxanthin [a human study concluded that patients treated with lutein/zeaxanthin and astaxanthin together with other nutrients were more likely to report clinically meaningful stabilization/improvements in visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity (CS), and visual function through 24 months compared with non-treated subjects]

 

Ageing/ Aging: see ΄΄Anti-aging (anti-ageing) properties΄΄, ΄΄Telomere shortening rate reduction properties΄΄, ΄΄Sirtuin-activating compounds΄΄and ΄΄Skin aging΄΄

 

 

Aging-associated decline in physical performance: see ΄΄Physical performance and strength improvement in the elderly΄΄

 

AIDS: see ΄΄HIV virus// AIDS΄΄

 

Albuminuria: alpha – lipoic acid

 

Alcohol: see ΄΄Alcoholism΄΄, ΄΄Brain damage prevention from chronic alcohol consumption΄΄, ΄΄Liver damage from chronic alcohol consumption prevention΄΄, ΄΄Chronic ethanol-induced oxidative stress΄΄ and ΄΄Alcohol withdrawal΄΄

 

Alcohol withdrawal: kudzu (a study concluded that kudzu root isoflavones suppressed alcohol drinking and withdrawal symptoms without entering the brain), Passiflora incarnata (Passionflower// a benzoflavone moiety has been reported recently to be responsible for the multifarious CNS (central nervous system) effects of Passiflora incarnate// the of a study results showed that in both, chronic and acute administrations, the benzoflavone moiety prevented significantly the expression of withdrawal effects of alcohol as there was a significant decrease in anxiety oriented behavior in mice that received benzoflavone moiety of P. incarnate]

 

Alcoholic liver disease: see ΄΄Liver damage from chronic alcohol consumption prevention΄΄

 

Alcoholism: Citicoline (CDP – Choline// INN), kudzu (animal studies suggest that kudzu, used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat alcohol abuse, may help reduce alcohol cravings// it has been demonstrated that a crude extract of kudzu Radix suppresses the free-choice ethanol intake of ethanol-preferring golden Syrian hamsters// a study concluded that kudzu’s extract may be a useful adjunct in reducing alcohol intake in a naturalistic setting// another study concluded that kudzu root isoflavones suppressed alcohol drinking and withdrawal symptoms without entering the brain), St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum// a major constituent chemical, hyperforin, may be useful for treatment of alcoholism, although dosage, safety and efficacy have not been studied)

 

Alertness: see ΄΄Mental alertness restoration΄΄

 

Allergies: see ΄΄Anti-allergic΄΄ and ΄΄Allergic rhinitis (hay fever)΄΄, ΄΄Eczema (atopic dermatitis)΄΄ and ΄΄Infant allergies΄΄

 

Allergic contact dermatitis: bilberry (a study in mice concluded the anthocyanin-rich but not anthocyanidin-rich bilberry extract may be a useful dietary supplement for skin diseases involving pruritic (with itching) symptoms, such as chronic allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and rhinitis)

 

Allergic rhinitis (hay fever): beta – glucans (a study concluded that glucan may have a role as an adjunct to standard treatment in patients with allergic rhinitis), MSM (methylsulfonylmethane// one study showed that MSM supplementation of 2 600 mg//day for 30 days may be efficacious in the reduction of symptoms associated with Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis), French maritime pine bark extract – Pycnogenol (a study concluded that Pycnogenol improved allergic rhinitis symptoms when supplementation was started at least 5 weeks before the onset of the allergy season), Quercetin, Spirulina (a human study concluded that Spirulina can modulate the Th profile in patients with allergic rhinitis by suppressing the differentiation of Th2 cells mediated, in part, by inhibiting the production of IL-4), astragalus (one study found that astragalus may help reduce symptoms in people who have allergic rhinitis or hayfever), bilberry (a study in mice concluded the anthocyanin-rich but not anthocyanidin-rich bilberry extract may be a useful dietary supplement for skin diseases involving pruritic (with itching) symptoms, such as chronic allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and rhinitis)

 

 

Alopecia (loss or thinning of hair): olive oil, topical applications of specific essential oils (they may benefit skin infections and stimulate new hair growth// someone can use 3 – 4 drops each of peppermint, rosemary, and sage in 1 tablespoonful of vegetable oil or olive oil), Rosemary essential oil & a mixture of essential oils applied topically [on a study of 84 people with alopecia areata (a disease in which hair falls out, generally in patches), the results showed that the 44% of those who massaged their scalps with rosemary and other essential oils (including lavender, thyme, and cedarwood) every day for 7 months experienced significant improvement, compared to those who massaged their scalps without the essential oils], Saw palmetto & beta-sitosterol [Saw palmetto has been suggested as a potential treatment for male pattern baldness// beta – sitosterol may help in androgenetic alopecia (male pattern hair loss)//a study was tested botanically derived 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, specifically the liposterolic extract of Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) and beta-sitosterol, in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia and showed a highly positive response to treatment – the blinded investigative staff assessment report showed that 60% of (6//10) study subjects dosed with the active study formulation were rated as improved at the final visit// in another study of 34 men and 28 women topically applied Serenoea Repens (SR) (saw palmetto) extract in lotion and shampoo base for three months led to 35% increase in hair density and 67% increase in sebum reduction assessed by sebometry, pH metry, hydration studies and phototrichogram// another study showed that addition of extract of 0.5% SR to ketaconazole shampoo was shown to give better results compared to ketaconazole alone], Sea – backthorn

ALS: See ΄΄Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis΄΄

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) [see also ΄΄Dementia΄΄ and ΄΄Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD)΄΄ (the main characteristic feature in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the presence of beta-amyloid plaques; these plaques are an accumulation of small fibers called beta amyloid fibrils.// Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of two histopathological hallmarks; the senile plaques, or extracellular deposits mainly composed of amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta), and the neurofibrillary tangles, or intraneuronal inclusions composed of hyperphosphorylated tau protein]: Acetylcarnitine (acetyl – L – carnitine, ALC or ALCAR) [a recent meta-analysis of 21 double-blind clinical trials of ALC in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer’s disease showed significant efficacy vs. placebo], aloe polymannose multinutrient complex (APMC) formula (the results of a study on patients with Alzheimer’s disease showed improvements in both clinical and physiological outcomes for a disease that otherwise has no standard ameliorative remedy], rosmarinic acid (an in vitro study concluded that although the mechanism by which curcumin and rosmarinic acid inhibit fAbeta formation from Abeta and destabilize preformed fAbeta in vitro remains unclear, they may be candidates as therapeutics for Alzheimer’s disease), Bacopa monnieri [Brahmi; the results of a study in rats suggest therapeutic potential of Bacopa monnieri (BM) in the treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD) associated cognitive decline.// Another study on rats showed that Bacopa monnieri extract improved the escape latency time in Morris water maze test and also, the reduction of neurons and cholinergic neuron densities were also mitigated; these findings suggest that Bacopa monnieri is a potential cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant against Alzheimer’s disease], beta – glucans, black tea [the findings of a study suggest that theaflavins (TF1, TF2a, TF2b, and TF3), the main polyphenolic components found in fermented black tea, are potent inhibitors of amyloid-β (Aβ) and α-synuclein (αS) fibrillogenesis; thus theaflavins might be used to remove toxic amyloid deposits], bilberry & blackcurrant [the data of a study on mice suggest that anthocyanin-rich bilberry and blackcurrant diets favorably modulate amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and alleviate behavioral abnormalities in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD)], blueberries [a study on mice demonstrated that the significant cognitive enhancement was observed in adult mice after short-term i.p. supplementation with the blueberry extract concentrated in polyphenols is closely related to higher brain antioxidant properties and inhibition of AChE (acetylcholinesterase) activity – these findings stress the critical impact of wild blueberry bioactive components on brain function.// A study on mice showed that blueberry-fed (from 4 months of age) APP + PS1 transgenic mice showed no deficits in Y-maze performance (at 12 months of age) with no alterations in amyloid beta burden.// The findings of a preliminary human study suggest that moderate-term blueberry supplementation can confer neurocognitive benefit and establish a basis for more comprehensive human trials to study preventive potential and neuronal mechanisms], L-Carnosine [the endogenous peptide carnosine may be potentially beneficial in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease because of its free-radical scavenger and metal chelating properties.// A study that explored the effect of L-carnosine supplementation in the 3xTg-Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mouse showed that carnosine supplementation in 3xTg-AD mice promotes a strong reduction in the hippocampal intraneuronal accumulation of Aβ and completely rescues AD and aging-related mitochondrial dysfunctions – the study concluded that carnosine can be part of a combined therapeutic approach for the treatment of  Alzheimer’sdisease (AD)], cinnamon [an in vitro study indicated that the ethanol extract of cinnamon may be a new potential resource of natural antioxidant and anticholinesterase compounds.// In a study, the authors identified a natural substance, based on cinnamon extract (CEppt), which markedly inhibits the formation of toxic Aβ oligomers and prevents the toxicity of Aβ on neuronal PC12 cells – when administered to an AD fly model, CEppt rectified their reduced longevity, fully recovered their locomotion defects and totally abolished tetrameric species of Aβ in their brain; furthermore, oral administration of CEppt to an aggressive AD transgenic mice model led to marked decrease in 56 kDa Aβ oligomers, reduction of plaques and improvement in cognitive behavior], Citicoline [CDP – Choline// INN] [Citicoline supplementation has been used to ameliorate memory disturbances in older people and those with Alzheimer's disease and it has been proven to be able to stimulate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity.// In patients with senile dementia of the Alzheimer’s type citicoline stops the course of disease, and neuroendocrine, neuroimmunomodulatory, and neurophysiological benefits have been reported], coenzyme Q-10, coffee [Retrospective and prospective epidemiologic studies suggest that enhanced coffee/caffeine intake during aging reduces risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD).// Studies in AD transgenic mice show that long-term caffeine administration protects against cognitive impairment and reduces brain amyloid-β levels/deposition through suppression of both β- and γ-secretase.// A study in mice that examined the effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on plasma cytokines, comparing their effects to caffeine alone, showed that in both AβPPsw+PS1 transgenic mice and non-transgenic littermates, acute i.p. treatment with caffeinated coffee greatly and specifically increased plasma levels of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF), IL-10, and IL-6; the study concluded that coffee may be the best source of caffeine to protect against Alzheimer's disease (AD) because of a component in coffee that synergizes with caffeine to enhance plasma granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF) levels, resulting in multiple therapeutic actions against AD], cranberry (in laboratory tests, cranberry seems to protect somewhat against Alzheimer’s disease), phosphatidylserine (SB-tPS// The results of a study suggests that phosphatidylserine may be a promising candidate for treating memory loss in later life./// Another study concluded that Soybean-derived phosphatidylserine is considered as safety food ingredient and 6 months of Soy-PS supplementation could improve the memory functions of the elderly with memory complaints.// A study showed that continuous oral administration of SB-tPS to male aged rats significantly improved performance in the water maze escape test similar to bovine brain cortex-derived phosphatidylserine, which restores cognitive function in patients with senile dementia), turmeric/ curcumin [various studies indicate a lower incidence and prevalence of Alzheimer’s Disease in India// A human study found that those who occasionally ate curry (less than once a month) and often (more than once a month) performed better on a standard test (MMSE) of cognitive function than those who ate curry never or rarely.// Studies in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) indicate a direct effect of curcumin in decreasing the amyloid pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD).// The results of a study on rats suggest that curcumin improves the spatial memory disorders (such disorders being symptomatic of Alzheimer's disease (AD)) in Aβ(1-40)-induced rats by down regulating GFAP expression and suppressing astrocytes (AS) activity.// In a preclinical study, curcumin-conjugated nanoliposomes were investigated as possible diagnostics and targeted drug delivery system in Alzheimer’s disease, demonstrating strong labeling of Aβ deposits both in human tissue and in mice, and in vitro downregulation of amyloid peptide secretion and prevention of Aβ-induced toxicity; in conclusion, curcumin-conjugated nanoliposomes could find application in the diagnosis and targeted drug delivery in Alzheimer’s disease (AD)./// A study demonstrated that the levels of beta-amyloid in Alzheimer's disease mice that were given low doses of curcumin were decreased by around 40% in comparison to those that were not treated with curcumin.// Recent reports have suggested therapeutic potential of curcumin in the pathophysiology of AD. In in vitro studies, curcumin has been reported to inhibit amyloid-β-protein (Aβ) aggregation, and Aβ-induced inflammation, as well as the activities of beta-secretase and acetylcholinesterase. In in vivo studies, oral administration of curcumin has resulted in the inhibition of Aβ deposition, Aβ oligomerization, and tau phosphorylation in the brains of AD animal models, and improvements in behavioral impairment in animal models.// The levels of beta-amyloid in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice that were given low doses of curcumin were decreased by around 40% in comparison to those that were not treated with curcumin; also, low doses of curcumin also caused a 43% decrease in the so-called ΄΄plaque burden΄΄ that these beta-amyloid have on the brains of AD mice.// Several studies investigating the functionality of curcumin have shown that it not only inhibits amyloid sedimentation but also accelerates the disaggregation of amyloid plaque.// The results of a study in rats suggest that curcumin improves the spatial memory disorders (such disorders being symptomatic of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)) in Aβ(1-40)-induced rats by down regulating glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression and suppressing astrocytes (AS) activity.// A study concluded that curcumin-conjugated nanoliposomes could find application in the diagnosis and targeted drug delivery in Alzheimer’s disease (AD)//. In another study they synthesized water-soluble PLGA coated- curcumin nanoparticles and coupled the nanoparticle with Tet-1 peptide, which has the affinity to neurons and possess retrograde transportation properties; the results suggest that curcumin encapsulated-PLGA nanoparticles are able to destroy amyloid aggregates, exhibit anti-oxidative property and are non-cytotoxic (toxic for the cells); thus the PLGA-curcumin nanoparticles can be used as a drug with multiple functions in treating Alzheimer's disease proving it to be a potential therapeutic tool against this dreaded disease], fisetin & quercetin [Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) has been found to be neuroprotective, induce neuronal differentiation, enhance memory, and inhibit the aggregation of the amyloid beta protein (Abeta) that may cause the progressive neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease. A study investigated the structural requirements for the anti-amyloidogenic activity of fisetin by comparing the effects of several structurally related flavonoids on Abeta fibril formation in vitro. Among ten flavonoids tested, fisetin, 3',4',7-trihydroxylflavone, 3,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone, luteolin, quercetin and myricetin inhibited Abeta fibril formation. On the other hand, 3,3',7-trihydroxyflavone, 5-deoxykaempferol, chrysin and kaempferol enhanced Abeta fibril formation. These results suggest that the 3',4'-dihydroxyl group, but not the 3- or 7-hydroxyl group, is essential for the inhibitory effect of fisetin on Abeta fibril formation], aged garlic extract (AGE; also known as ‘kyolic’) (the findings of an in vitro study suggest that consumption of garlic may lead to inhibition of Abeta aggregation in human brain), Ginkgo Biloba [Ginkgo is widely used in Europe for treating dementia. It may protect nerve cells that are damaged in Alzheimer's disease. A number of studies have found that ginkgo has a positive effect on memory and thinking in people with Alzheimer's or vascular dementia. Studies suggest that ginkgo may help people with Alzheimer's disease: improve thinking, learning, and memory (cognitive function), have an easier time doing day to day activities, improve social behavior, have fewer feelings of depression. Several studies have found that ginkgo may work as well as some prescription Alzheimer's medications to delay the symptoms of dementia. However, other studies have failed to demonstrate the effectiveness of Ginkgo.//// There is no proof that taking ginkgo will help protect against dementia.//// Some evidence shows that taking ginkgo leaf extract by mouth modestly improves symptoms of Alzheimer’s, vascular, or mixed dementias. However, there are concerns that findings from many of the early ginkgo studies may not be reliable. Although most clinical trials show ginkgo helps for symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, there are some conflicting findings, suggesting it may be hard to determine which people might benefit./// A human study concluded that there is no evidence of relevant differences in the efficacy of the Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 and the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil in the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer’s dementia, so the use of both substances can be justified; in addition, the study contributed to the establishment of the efficacy and tolerability of the Ginkgo biloba special extract E.S. in the dementia of the Alzheimer type with special respect to moderately severe stages], Panax ginseng [a human study concluded that Panax ginseng is clinically effective in the cognitive performance of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients; the study showed that after the ginseng treatment the cognitive subscale of ADAS and the MMSE score began to show improvements and continued up to 12 weeks], Korean red ginseng (KRG; a form of Panax ginseng) [a human study concluded that Korean red ginseng (KRG) showed good efficacy for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease; however, further studies with larger samples of patients and a longer efficacy trial should be conducted to confirm the efficacy of KRG], green tea (in vitro studies have shown that green tea extract may protect neurons from Aβ amyloid-induced damages), Holy basil (Tulsi) extract (in a study, it increased step-down latency and acetyl cholinesterase inhibition significantly), Huperzine A [animal and in vitro experiments have been conducted, and the mechanism of action for huperzine appears to be a combination of anticholinesterase activity and antiglutamate, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects. Huperzine A crosses the blood-brain barrier more effectively than the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) tacrine or donepezil and acts with greater potency than the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) tacrine, physostigmine, or galanthamine. Based on limited data, some beneficial effects are attributed to huperzine A in Alzheimer disease, including an increase in general cognitive function, global clinical status, behavioral disturbances, and physical performance.// A meta-analysis showed that oral (by mouth) administration of huperzine A for 8 – 24 weeks (300 – 500 microg daily) led to significant improvements in mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and activities of daily living (ADL) – the results of meta-regression showed that the estimated effect size of MMSE and ADL was increased over the treatment time; in conclusion, huperzine A is a well-tolerated drug that could significantly improve cognitive performance and activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD).// The results obtained from a study using a sample of 3xTg-AD mice strongly suggest that the treatment with the two acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), huprine X (a new AChEI) and the structurally related huperzine A, not only improves the cognitive performance of the animals but also induces some neurochemical changes that could contribute to the beneficial effects observed.// A study in rats concluded that huperzine A had high bioavailability and more selective inhibition on AChE activity in cortex and hippocampus – huperzine A fits more closely with the established criteria for an ideal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor to be used in clinical studies.// Hup A (huperzine A), a novel alkaloid isolated from Chineses herb Huperzia serrata, is a potent and selective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), with a rapid absorption and penetration into the brain in experimental animals. The inhibition is reversible with a longer duration of action. Hup A exhibited memory-enhancing activities in a broad range of animal cognitive model. Compared to the classical drugs used in Alzheimer’s Phy, Tac (tacrine), and Gal (galantamine), Hup A has better therapeutic indices, and peripheral cholinergic side effects are minimal at therapeutic doses. These findings suggest that Hup A is a promising candidate for clinical development as a symptomatic treatment for Alzheimer’s disease (AD).// An in vitro study in concluded that there is evidence that huperzine A protects neurons against amyloid β-peptide fragment 25 – 35 (Aβ25 – 35)-induced apoptosis (programmed cell death) via the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and caspase-3 activity.// Α human study concluded that there is equal efficacy and safety between huperzine A in capsule and tablet for treating patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and huperzine A (Hup) can reduce the pathological changes of the oxygen free radicals in the plasma and erythrocytes of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD).// A Cochrane review concluded that from the available evidence, Huperzine A seems to have some beneficial effects on improvement of general cognitive function, global clinical status, behavioral disturbance and functional performance, with no obvious serious adverse events for patients with AD. However, only one study was of adequate quality and size. There is therefore inadequate evidence to make any recommendation about its use.// The results of a study in patients with Alzheimer’s disease showed that about 58% (29/50) of patients treated with huperzine A showed improvements in their memory, cognitive, and behavioral functions; the efficacy of huperzine A was better than placebo (36%, 19/53)the study concluded that huperzine A is a promising drug for symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.// A study that evaluated the clinical efficacy and safety of huperzine Alpha in treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) showed that in comparison with the baseline data, there was an improvement of 4.6 points in cognition assessed by ADAS-Cog; an improvement of 2.7 points by MMSE (mini mental state examination), an improvement of 1.5 points in behavior and mood by ADAS-non-Cog with 59.2% of the patients being on the mend clinically; and an improvement of 2.4 points by ADL with the capacity of ADL improved by at least 10% among 32.75% of the patients. 70% of the patients in huperzine Alpha group scored 1 approximately 3 points, and 27.8% of them scored 1 approximately 2 points by CIBIC-plus. In conclusion, a safe and effective medicine, huperzine Alpha remarkably improves the cognition, behavior, activity of daily life (ADL) and mood of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients], Idebenone (a synthetic product similar to coenzyme Q-10// Idebenone is a new cerebro-active drug, effective in dementia disorders, particularly indicated in primary degenerative dementias, i.e. Alzheimer’s disease// the results of a study demonstrated that treatment with idebenone was effective on memory, attention, and orientation and in slowing down the natural progressive worsening of Alzheimer’s disease// another study showed that patients randomized to idebenone showed a higher benefit from treatment than patients randomized to tacrine), Kale [a study mentions that kale seeds were the most effective Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor], kudzu [a study concluded that puerarin, an isoflavone purified from Chinese herb radix of kudzu, may act as an intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, and protect neurons against oxidative-stress-induced apoptosis (programmed cell death)], lecithin (a study concluded that the effects of lecithin are complex but that there may be a ΄΄therapeutic window΄΄ for the effects of lecithin in the condition and that this may be more evident in older patients// another study concluded that lecithin has a small additional benefit independent of tacrine), lemon balm (a few studies have found that lemon balm may help improve cognitive function and decrease agitation in people with Alzheimer’s disease// a study concluded that lemon balm extract is of value in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease and has a positive effect on agitation in such patients// another study concluded that doses of lemon balm at or above the maximum employed here can improve cognitive performance and mood and may therefore be a valuable adjunct in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease// another study on Alzheimer’s disease showed a sustained improvement in Accuracy of Attention following 600 mg of Melissa and time- and dose-specific reductions in both Secondary Memory and Working Memory factors. Self-rated ΄΄calmness΄΄, as assessed by Bond-Lader mood scales, was elevated at the earliest time points by the lowest dose, whilst ΄΄alertness΄΄ was significantly reduced at all time points following the highest dose), alpha – lipoic acid (a study suggest that treatment with alpha-lipoic acid might be a successful ΄΄neuroprotective΄΄ therapy option for Alzheimer’s disease), melatonin (it may be helpful on preventing and treating Alzheimer’s disease, by inhibiting the aggregation of the beta – amyloid plaques that cause the death of the neurons and the formation of neuro-fibrillary tangles on this disease// a review concluded that melatonin treatment may be effective for the treatment of dementia-related psychopathologic behavior disturbances, however no evidence was found to support the effectiveness of melatonin for the treatment of cognitive impairment), Milk thistle// Silymarin (in vivo studies indicated a significant reduction in brain Aβ deposition and improvement in behavioral abnormalities), linoleic acid (an omega – 6 fatty acid) [in a study; the authors found a previously unrecognized linoleic acid (an omega – 6 fatty acid) deficiency in the early phase of neurodegeneration that was strongly supported by an increased, compensatory mead acid (an omega – 9 fatty acid) level; these findings suggest the importance of creating new dietary manipulation strategies to counteract disease progression], omega – 3 fatty acids // fish oil (a review concluded that there is a growing body of evidence from biological, observational and epidemiological studies that suggests a protective effect of omega 3 PUFA against dementia// another review concluded that the existing data favor a role for long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in slowing cognitive decline in elderly individuals without dementia, but not for the prevention or treatment of dementia, including Alzheimer disease), phosphatidylcholine [a study concluded that administration of egg phosphatidylcholine to mice with dementia increases brain acetylcholine concentration and improves memory// another study suggested that dietary supplementation of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (PCh) improves memory of Dull mice, particularly when given from gestation and that the 2% PCh diet elicits better response than the 8% PCh diet// another study concluded that the lower lysophosphatidylcholine//phosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC//PC) ratio in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) may reflect alterations in the metabolism of choline-containing phospholipids in the brain in AD, and suggests that PC species containing linoleic acid or arachidonic acid are equally involved], polyphenols// red wine (observations suggest that distinct polyphenolic compounds from red wines may be bioavailable at the organism level and beneficially modulate Alzheimer’s disease phenotypes through multiple Abeta-related mechanisms// it has been previously found that treatment with Cabernet Sauvignon reduced the generation of AD-type amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides// a new study suggests that muscadine treatment attenuates Abeta neuropathology and Abeta-related cognitive deterioration in Tg2576 mice// these observations suggest that distinct polyphenolic compounds from red wines may be bioavailable at the organism level and beneficially modulate Alzheimer’s disease phenotypes through multiple Abeta-related mechanisms), Resveratrol (the findings of a study demonstrated a proteasome-dependent anti-amyloidogenic activity of resveratrol and suggest that this natural compound has a therapeutic potential in Alzheimer’s disease), Rhodiola rosea (a study demonstrated that Rhodiola rosea L. roots have potent anti-depressant activity by inhibiting MAO A and may also find application in the control of senile dementia by their inhibition of MAO B), Rosemary (carnosic acid) & lemon & levander & orange essential oils (a study examined the curative effects of aromatherapy in dementia in 28 elderly people, 17 of whom had Alzheimer’s disease by using rosemary and lemon essential oils in the morning, and lavender and orange in the evening – the study concluded that aromatherapy is an efficacious non-pharmacological therapy for dementia and that aromatherapy may have some potential for improving cognitive function, especially in Alzheimer’s disease patients), Saffron (dried stigmas of the plant Crocus sativus// a study suggested that at least in the short-term, saffron is both safe and effective in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease// another study showed that saffron at this dose was found to be effective similar to donepezil in the treatment of mild-to-moderate AD after 22 weeks// another study demonstrated the effectiveness of crocin in antagonizing the cognitive deficits caused by intracerebroventricular streptozocin STZ in rats and its potential in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease), SAMe [a study concluded that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with lower cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) SAM levels and that this is at least partly due to an association of the APOE4 allele with reduced SAM levels in the CSF// AD is accompanied by reduced GST activity, diminished SAM, and increased S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), the downstream metabolic product resulting from SAM-mediated transmethylation reactions, when deprived of folate - thus, these findings underscore the critical role of SAM in maintenance of neuronal health, suggesting a possible role of SAM as a neuroprotective dietary supplement for AD patients], Eleuthero [called wrongly by some as Siberian ΄΄ginseng΄΄// extracts of Eleuthero (the rhizome of Eleutherococcus senticosus) were shown to have protective effects on the regeneration of neurites and the reconstruction of synapses in rat cultured cortical neurons damaged by amyloid β (Aβ)(25-35), and eleutheroside B was one of the active constituents.// In an in vitro study, the ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions from the methanol extract of Eleuthero showed protective effects against Aβ-induced neuritic atrophy and the compounds eleutheroside B, eleutheroside E and isofraxidin showed obvious protective effects against Aβ(25-35)-induced atrophies of axons and dendrites], Chinese skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis [the results of a study indicated that Scutellaria baicalensis may possess therapeutic potential for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia], Soybeans (a study in rats suggested that soy meal is a potential alternative to estrogen in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease), Spirulina (a study in mice concluded that Spirulina platensis may prevent the loss of memory possibly by lessening Aβ protein accumulation, reducing oxidative damage and mainly augmenting the catalase activity), Vinpocetine (in three studies of older adults with memory problems associated with poor brain circulation or dementia-related disease, vinpocetine produced significantly more improvement than a placebo in performance on global cognitive tests reflecting attention, concentration, and memory// a study in rats showed that treatment with vinpocetine for 21 days following first i.c.v. streptozotocin infusion resulted to significant improvement on learning and memory in Morris water maze and passive avoidance paradigms// also, vinpocetine significantly reduced the oxidative-nitritive stress, and chronic treatment with vinpocetine also reduced significantly the increase in acetylcholinesterase activity and lactate dehydrogenase levels), Goji berry (Wolfberry) (a study showed that polysaccharides derived from wolfberry exerted neuroprotective effects on cortical neurons exposed to homocysteine, therefore, LBA has the potential to be a diseasemodifying agent for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease), Yokukansan [an in vitro study demonstrated that yokukansan (YKS), a traditional Japanese medicine, inhibited amyloid beta (β) protein (Aβ) aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner// an in vivo study demonstrated that YKS and Uncaria hook (UH), a constituent of YKS, prevented the accumulation of cerebral Aβ// another study indicated that Yokukansan, Senkyu (a component of Yokukansan) and ferulic acid (content of the above two drugs) are protective against endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced neuronal cell death and may provide a possible new treatment for Alzheimer’s disease (AD)], Cat’s claw, dark chocolate [Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with oxidative stress, and it has been suggested that apoptosis (programmed cell death) is a crucial pathway in neuronal cell death in AD patients. 4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE), one of the aldehydic products of membrane lipid peroxidation, is reported to be elevated in the brains of AD patients and mediates the induction of neuronal apoptosis in the presence of oxidative stress. The results of a study indicate that cocoa procyanidin fraction (CPF) and its major antioxidant procyanidin B2 protect rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells against 4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) –induced apoptosis (programmed cell death) by blocking MKK4 activity as well as ROS (reactive oxygen species) accumulation], devil’s claw [the result of an in vitro study that tested the ability of extracts, phenylethanoid-containing fractions and the major phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from the Devil's claw cultures, to inhibit acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, and the antioxidant activity in iron-related systems indicated that the phenylethanoid fractions may be attractive for various commercial purposes since they displayed significant cholinesterase inhibitory activity (even higher than that of pure galanthamine (a medicine used for Alzheimer’s disease) in the case of butyrylcholinesterase inhibition assay)], homotaurine (3 – APS) [Homotaurine, a small aminosulfonate compound that is present in different species of marine red algae, has been shown, in both in vitro and in vivo models, to provide a relevant neuroprotective (protective for the nerves) effect by its specific anti- amyloid activity and by its γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor affinity./// A human study concuded that the primary planned analyses did not show a significant treatment effect, but were confounded by unexplained variance. Post-hoc analyses showed a significant treatment-related reduction in hippocampus volume (HV) loss. However, there was only a trend towards slowing of decline on the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale - cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) and no slowing of decline on the Clinical Dementia Rating - Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB) assessment./// The findings of an analysis revealed statistically significant differences or statistical trends in favor of tramiprosate (homotaurine) on six ADAS-cog subscales, namely Following Commands, Language Comprehension, Ideational Praxis, Object Naming, Remembering Test Instructions, and Spoken Language Ability; this exploratory analysis suggests that tramiprosate (homotaurine) may have some benefit on memory, language and praxis skills in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease (AD) individuals.// A new multi-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study in a subset of the 1 052 patients of the Alphase study describes the vMRI, cognitive and clinical results obtained in this subgroup; the exploratory analysis of the vMRI subgroup suggests that tramiprosate slows hippocampal atrophy, and reveals some evidence of a beneficial effect on cognition.// The results of a study indicate that 3-APS favours tau aggregation, in tau transfected non-neuronal cells, and in neuronal cells; it was also demonstrated that 3-APS does not affect the binding of tau to microtubules but may prevent the formation of tau-actin./// Tramiprosate (3-amino-1-propanesulfonic acid; 3APS) was found to maintain Abeta in a non-fibrillar form, to decrease Abeta(42)-induced cell death in neuronal cell cultures, and to inhibit amyloid deposition. Treatment of TgCRND8 mice with Tramiprosate resulted in significant reduction (approximately 30%) in the brain amyloid plaque load and a significant decrease in the cerebral levels of soluble and insoluble Abeta(40) and Abeta(42) (approximately 20 –30%). A dose-dependent reduction (up to 60%) of plasma Abeta levels was also observed, suggesting that Tramiprosate influences the central pool of Abeta, changing either its efflux or its metabolism in the brain], almonds [a study that investigated the effect of Prunus amygdalus (PA) (almond) nuts on cognitive functions, total cholesterol levels and cholinesterase (ChE) activity in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats showed that PA at the above-mentioned doses after 7 and 14 days of administration in the respective groups significantly reversed scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.)-induced amnesia, as evidenced by a decrease in the transfer latency in the EPM task and step-down latency in the passive avoidance task. PA reduced the brain ChE activity in rats. PA also exhibited a remarkable cholesterol and triglyceride lowering property and slight increase in glucose levels in the present study. In conclusion, because diminished cholinergic transmission and increase in cholesterol levels appear to be responsible for the development of amyloid plaques and dementia in Alzheimer patients, Prunus amygdalus (PA) (almond) may prove to be a useful memory-restorative agent. It would be worthwhile to explore the potential of this plant in the management of Alzheimer's disease] apple [Gain-of-function mutations in the presenilin-1 (PS-1) promote Alzheimer's disease (AD) by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS), at least part of which is derived by an accompanying increase in generation of amyloid-beta (Abeta). A study on mice demonstrated that apple juice concentrate (AJC) contained levels of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) comparable to those capable of suppressing presenilin-1 (PS-1) overexpression, suggesting that the SAM content of AJC represents a potential mechanism for preventing PS-1 overexpression, and further highlighting the possibility that AJC provides neuroprotection by mechanisms in addition to its antioxidant potential./// A study in mice demonstrated that apple juice concentrate (AJC), administered in drinking water, maintains acetylcholine levels that otherwise decline when adult and aged mice are maintained on the above deficient diet]

 

 

 

 

 

Amblyopia (occurs when visual stimulation either fails to transmit or is poorly transmitted through the optic nerve to the brain for a continuous period of time): Citicoline (CDP – Choline// INN)

 

Amenorrhea (absence of menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age): yarrow (Achillea millefolium)

 

 

Amnesia reversal: see ΄΄Diazepam-induced amnesia reversal΄΄ and ΄΄Scopolamine -induced amnesia reversal΄΄

 

Amphetamine dependence:  Citicoline [CDP – Choline// INN.// The findings of a human placebo-controlled trial in a dual diagnosis sample with methamphetamine use disorders suggest that citicoline may have antidepressant properties in this population; greater treatment retention with citicoline is also noteworthy in a patient population with substance dependence]

 

 

Amyloidosis: Cat’s claw, flavonoids [Flavonoids may be useful as a supportive therapy to standard medical care in treating amyloidosis. Flavonoids that may help include Pycnogenol (Pinus pinaster) and Gingko (Gingko biloba) extract. Pycnogenol, which comes from the bark of French maritime pine, is rich in flavonoids. One laboratory study suggested that pycnogenol protected cells of cattle from free radical damage due to amyloid deposits. Gingko biloba extract also contains flavonoids. It has been suggested as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Given the link between Alzheimer's and amyloid deposits, gingko may help treat amyloidosis as well, especially because it is also an antioxidant]

 

 

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS):  coenzyme Q-10, polyunsaturated fatty acids (dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been shown in several studies to decrease the risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), Rosemary (rosmarinic acid & carnosic acid// a study demonstrated that intraperitoneal administration of rosemary extract or rosmarinic acid from the presymptomatic stage significantly delayed motor dysfunction in paw grip endurance tests, attenuated the degeneration of motor neurons, and extended the life span of ALS model mice - also, rosmarinic acid administration significantly improved the clinical score and suppressed body weight loss, compared with a vehicle-treated group), melatonin, Spirulina

 

Analgesic (pain killing) effects (see also ΄΄Analgesic affects after surgery΄΄): Aloe vera (for non-cancer pain, particularly that caused by osteoarthritis), tart cherries [a study in rats showed that tart cherry anthocyanins may have a beneficial role in the treatment of inflammatory pain – the antihyperalgesic effects may be related to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of anthocyanins (hyperalgesia is an increased sensitivity to pain that may be caused by damage to nociceptors or peripheral nerves).// A human study showed that ingesting tart cherry juice for 7 days prior to and during a strenuous running event can minimize post (after) – run muscle pain], devil’s claw [studies have found that taking devil’s claw for several months substantially reduces pain and improves physical functioning in people with osteoarthritis// also evidence suggests that devil’s claw may help relieve low back and neck pain// its analgesic properties (for relieving pain) have been studied for chronic use, rather than treatment of acute pain], Holy basil (Tulsi), American skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora// baicalin is a phenolic of some Scutellaria species that has anti- inflammatoy and analgesic properties),  Andrographis paniculata [Andrographolide (1) and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (2) are active constituents of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.), family Acanthaceae. A. paniculata extracts are reported to have antiviral, antipyretic, immunostimulant and anticancer activities. In a study, 1 and its 14-acetyl- (4) and 3,19-isopropylidenyl- (3) derivatives, as well as 2 and its 3,19-dipalmitoyl-derivative (5), were intraperitoneally tested for their analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and acute toxicity effects in animal models. Analgesic effects were tested in mice using hot plate and writhing tests to distinguish the central and peripheral effects, respectively. The results showed that, at 4 mg/kg, all tested substances have significant analgesic effects, and the highest potency was seen with 3, 4 and 5. Increasing the dose of 3 and 5 to 8 mg/kg did not increase the analgesic effect. In the writhing test, 3 and 5, but not 1, showed significant results. From this study, 3 and 5 are the most interesting derivatives, showing much greater potency than their parent compounds. These could be further developed as analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agents, without any serious toxicity], Echinacea, curcumin [a study that investigated the gastroprotective, analgesic (pain killing), and antipyretic effects of curcumin (Cur), the major constituent of turmeric, showed that curcumin (100 mg/kg) injected intra-peritoneally 1 hour prior to the Hot-Plate Test had significant analgesic activity expressed by both parameters: an increase in latency time and a reduction in paw licking as compared to the controls]

 

 

Analgesic affects after surgery: Homeopathic Arnica montana (a study in 190 patients over the age of 18 undergoing tonsillectomy (the surgical removal of the tonsils) concluded that Arnica montana given after tonsillectomy provides a small, but statistically significant, decrease in pain scores compared to placebo./// Three randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, sequential clinical trials on a single primary care unit specialised in arthroscopic knee surgery investigated the effectiveness of homeopathic Arnica montana on post-operative (after surgery) swelling and pain after knee arthroscopy (ART) and knee surgery [artificial knee joint implantation (AKJ), and cruciate ligament reconstruction (CLR)] showed that in all three trials, patients receiving homeopathic arnica showed a trend towards less postoperative (after surgery) swelling compared to patients receiving placebo. However, a significant difference in favour of homeopathic arnica was only found in the CLR trial]

 

 

 

 

Anemia: see ΄΄Iron deficiency// iron deficiency anemia΄΄

 

Aneurysm: see ΄΄Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)΄΄

 

Angina pectoris [chest pain from heart ischemia (a restriction in blood supply with resultant damage or dysfunction of the tissues) which is caused by low blood flow to the heart]: hawthorn, Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) and kudzu (a few clinical trials have indicated that kudzu may reduce the frequency of angina// a study concluded that Danshen and kudzu adjunctive treatment in coronary patients was well tolerated and effective in improving vascular function and structure – these two herbs may become a novel agent for secondary prevention), L- Carnitine and propionyl-L-carnitine [L-carnitine may help in the relief of angina pectoris and increase the ability of patients with angina to exercise with less chest pain// several clinical trials indicate that L-carnitine and propionyl-L-carnitine can help reduce symptoms of angina and improve the ability of those with angina to exercise without chest pain// a study concluded that treatment with L-carnitine increases exercise tolerance and reduces ECG (electrocardiogram) indices of ischemia in stable effort-induced angina// another study concluded that propionyl-L-carnitine can significantly improve exercise tolerance in patients with stable angina], pomegranate [a study concluded that daily consumption of pomegranate juice may improve stress-induced myocardial (heart) ischemia (restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue) in patients who have ischemic coronary heart disease (CHD)], Salvia miltiorrhiza [Danshen// chemicals in Salvia miltiorrhiza may cause vasodilation (widening of the blood vessels), and especially of the coronary arteries of the heart// experimental studies have shown that DanShen dilated coronary arteries, increased coronary blood flow, and scavenged free radicals in ischemic diseases, so that it reduced the cellular damage from ischemia (a restriction in blood supply with resultant damage or dysfunction of the tissues) and improved heart functions], Sea – backthorn, coenzyme Q10 (it may improve exercise ability in people with angina)

 

 

Anorexia nervosa: see ΄΄Eating disorders΄΄

 

Anterior uveitis (inflammation of the uvea; the uvea consists of the middle, pigmented, vascular structures of the eye and includes the iris, ciliary body and choroid): turmeric/ curcumin [it has been studied for chronic anterior uveitis; a preliminary study suggests curcumin may help treat uveitis; in one study of 32 people with chronic anterior uveitis, curcumin was effective as corticosteroids, the type of medication usually prescribed.// A human study on patients suffering from chronic anterior uveitis concluded that the efficacy of curcumin and recurrences following treatment are comparable to corticosteroid therapy which is presently the only available standard treatment for this disease – the lack of side effects with curcumin is its greatest advantage compared with corticosteroids.// A study on patients with recurrent anterior uveitis of different etiologies showed that curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex (Meriva (R) (Norflo)) was well tolerated and could reduce eye discomfort symptoms and signs after a few weeks of treatment in more than 80% of patients]

 

Anti-aging (anti-ageing) properties (see also ΄΄Telomere shortening rate reduction properties΄΄, ΄΄Sirtuin-activating compounds΄΄and ΄΄Skin aging΄΄): Acai palm (berry) [in a study, the authors employed a nutritional geometry approach to investigate the interplay among dietary fat, sugar, protein and antioxidant- and polyphenolic-rich freeze-dried acai pulp in modulating lifespan and reproductive output in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew); the results showed that acai supplementation promoted survival, while decreasing lifetime reproductive output, in flies on diets with high fat and high sugar but not other diets when compared to diet-matched non-supplemented controls], anthocyanins, Astragalus membranaceus// astragaloside IV// Cycloastragenol (CAG// e.g. TAT2), L – Carnosine (a study showed that it can delay senescence in cultured human fibroblasts and reverse the senescent phenotype, restoring a more juvenile appearance), coenzyme Q-10 [a study in rats concluded that long-term supplementation with a small dosage of coenzyme Q10 might represent a good anti-aging therapy in rats fed on a polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) – based diet.// A study showed that CoQ(10) and Vitamin E extended the life span of wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans (a nematode (round worm)); conversely, only CoQ(10) recovered the life shortening effects seen in mev-1; the data of the study suggest that exogenously supplied CoQ(10) can play a significant anti-aging function – it may do so either by acting as an antioxidant to dismutate the free radical superoxide anion or by reducing the uncoupling of reactions during election transport that could otherwise result in superoxide anion production], Cranberry [a study thet used the Mexican fruit flies concluded that oregano and cranberry mixture has prolongevity effects and that the benefits of botanicals on aging depend on diet composition and gender.// Another study on Mexican Fruit fly showed that oregano-cranberry (OC) mixture extends lifespan and promotes reproduction partly through Dietary restriction (DR) – independent pathways, and short-term supplementation have varied impact on longevity and reproduction; this also suggests a positive interaction between non-genetic interventions in promoting longevity and provides guidance for using botanicals as aging interventions in humans.// A study showed that cranberry supplementation confers increased longevity and stress resistance in the nematode (roundworm) Caenorhabditis elegans through pathways modulated by daf-16 and osr-1; this study reveals the anti-aging property of widely consumed cranberry and elucidates the underpinning mechanisms], fisetin [it is a potent sirtuin – activating compound, an agent that modulates sirtuins// thus, it is a caloric – restriction mimetic and it may have longevity properties// A study tested the potential effects of six longevity-promoting compounds on induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) induction, including the sirtuin activator fisetin. With the exception of metformin, all of these chemicals promoted somatic cell reprogramming, though to different extents. The results show that the controllers of somatic cell reprogramming and organismal lifespan share some common regulatory pathways, which suggests a new approach for studying aging and longevity based on the regulation of cellular reprogramming./// In Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), in the wild-type strain Canton-S, lifespan was extended up to 23% with fisetin and up to 29% with resveratrol.// A study used the multicellular model organism nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to examine the effects of the flavonoids kaempferol and fisetin with respect to their protective action in individual living worms. Both flavonoids increased the survival of C. elegans, reduced the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation at lethal thermal stress, and diminished the extent of induced oxidative stress with kaempferol having a stronger impact. Also, kaempferol and fisetin caused a translocation of the Caenorhabditis elegans FoxO transcription factor DAF-16 from the cytosol to the nucleus indicating a modulatory influence of both flavonoids on signalling cascade(s)./// Sinclair et al have reported that a group of polyphenolic compounds (STACs), such as resveratrol, fisetin, and butein, can activate the catalytic activity of Sir2 and its orthologs and extend the life spans of yeast, worms, and flies], curcumin (antioxidant), kaempferol, garlic/ Aged garlic extract (AGE) (also known as ‘Kyolic’), grape fruit, spermidine (an autophagy inducer// the polyamine ΄΄spermidine΄΄ that is contained at green peas and grape fruit is shown that increases life span in worms, fruit flies, yeast and human immune cells), Melatonin [it may also increase longevity – in a study on mice it increased average life span by 20%// studies generally suggest that exogenously administered melatonin may serve to extend life span in invertebrates// a study showed that melatonin supplementation increased clonal lifespan in Paramecium tetraurelia, an aerobic, single-celled organism// another study showed that Melatonin, added daily to the nutrition medium, increased significantly the life span of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly)// a study on mice showed that melatonin increased life span of the last 10% of the survivors in comparison to controls], blueberry [a study that examined the effects of blueberry polyphenols on lifespan and aging of the nematode (roundworm), Caenorhabditis elegans showed that a complex mixture of blue-berry polyphenols increased lifespan and slowed aging-related declines in C. Elegans; the study concluded that the polyphenolic compounds in blueberries had robust and reproducible benefits during aging that were separable from antioxidant effects.// Another study that investigated the lifespan-prolonging activity of blueberry extracts in fruit flies revealed that blueberry extracts at 5mg/ml in diet could significantly extend the mean lifespan of fruit flies by 10%, accompanied by up-regulating gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and Rpn11 and down-regulating Methuselah (MTH) gene – the study concluded that the lifespan-prolonging activity of blueberry extracts was at least partially associated with its interactions with MTH, Rpn11, and endogenous antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)], Stilbenes (such as pterostilbene and resveratrol), resveratrol  [studies demonstrated that it extends the lifespan of yeast, nematode worms, fruit – flies (drosophila), short – lived fish and mice with a high calorie intake// Italian researchers found that resveratrol it expands lifespan in vertebrate fish by 59% resveratrol mimics calorie restriction in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by increasing life span by 70% through the activation of the sirtuin Sir2 deacetylase// this simple plant phenol, notably found in red wine, also stimulates the human sirtuin SIRT1 that promotes cell survival by negatively regulating p53// a study on the short-lived seasonal fish Nothobranchius furzeri concluded that food supplementation with resveratrol prolongs lifespan and retards the expression of age-dependent traits in a short-lived vertebrate// it appears that resveratrol can induce the expression of several longevity genes including Sirt1, Sirt3, Sirt4, FoxO1, Foxo3a and PBEF// a study showed that resveratrol and dietary restriction only prolonged the lifespan of autophagy-proficient nematodes// the polyphenol resveratrol activates SIRT1 in an in vitro assay, and produces changes that resemble CR in vivo, including improvements in insulin sensitivity, endurance, and overall survival in obese mice// another study concluded that in the model organisms Caenorhabditis elegans (a nematode// roundworm), resveratrol is capable of promoting longevity at a concentration that pharmacologically relevant and 20 times lower than previously published doses], Royal jelly (a study concluded that royal jelly and its related substances extend lifespan in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, suggesting that royal jelly may contain longevity-promoting factors), Sesame oil (the antiaging effect of sesame was elucidated to be due to the strong vitamin E activity caused by a novel synergistic effect of sesame lignans with tocopherols resulting from the inhibition of metabolic decomposition of tocopherols by sesame lignans), Strawberries [Strawberries contain fisetin (see above), an antioxidant with longevity promoting properties], Vigconic 28 (VI-28) [a Yang-invigorating Chinese herbal formula; a study on mice concluded that  VI-28 could retard the aging process in mice, probably by mitigating age-associated declines in mitochondrial antioxidant status and functional ability in tissues], holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum, or tulsi), saffron (especially it is said that krokos kozanis, organic red saffron, has the most potent activity), black tea, branched – chain amino acids (BCAAs) –especially the amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine [branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been shown to extend chronological life span in yeast; a study showed that a BCAA-enriched mixture (BCAAem) increased the average life span of mice – the study concluded to the important antiaging role of BCAAs mediated by mitochondrial biogenesis in mammals], Cinnamomum cassia bark (cinnamon bark), Rhodiola [it has been proposed that Rhodiola can extend longevity and improve health span by alleviating oxidative stress; in a study rhodiola supplied every other day at 30 mg//mL significantly increased the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly)], Epitalon (a synthetic peptide bioregulator), Deltaran (a delta-sleep-inducing peptide), Aqualen (enterosorbent), Neuronol (Noogam) [a succinic acid containing preparation], Panax ginseng (a study investigated the association between ginseng intake and mortality among members of the Korean population – the study examined 6 282 subjects who were 55 years of age or older; the 18.8-year progressive cohort study concluded that ginseng intake decreased all-cause mortality in older males, but such life prolongation effect was not shown in women), Tiao – Geng – Tang (TG-decoction) [a study on ovariectomized 5-month-old female rats concluded that the TG-decoction balances female hormones similarly to conjugated estrogens but less effectively. However, it is superior in up regulating ERα and β and exhibits antioxidative anti-aging activities], Lycium barbarum (Wolfberry, Goji berry) [traditionally, Lycium has been used to promote longevity; in a review the authors accumulated scientific evidence for its anti-aging effects that should be highlighted for modern preventive medicine], Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi) (anecdotal evidence), apple [On an in vivo study using Caenorhabditis elegans (a nematode (roundworm)) as a model, the mean and maximum lifespan of animals treated with 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/ml whole apple extracts increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner by up to 39 and 25%, respectively. Healthspan also significantly improved as indicated by improved motility and reduced lipofuscin accumulation. Animals pre-treated with whole apple extracts were more resistant to stresses such as heat, UV radiation, paraquat-induced oxidative stress, and pathogenic infection, suggesting that cellular defense and immune system functions also improved. These findings indicate that, in Caenorhabditis elegans (a nematode (roundworm)), whole apple extracts slow aging, extend lifespan, improve healthspan, and enhance resistance to stress./// A study on fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) showed that the mean lifespan was significantly extended by 10% in fruit flies fed the AP diet. This was accompanied by up-regulation of genes SOD1, SOD2, and CAT and down-regulation of MTH in the aged fruit flies; the study concluded that the antiaging activity of apple polyphenols (AP) was, at least in part, mediated by its interaction with genes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), methuselah (MTH) and Rpn11.//// A study that measured the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans (a nematode (roundworm)) worms treated with apple polyphenols procyanidins (PC) showed that treatment with 65 µg/mL PC extended the mean lifespan of wild-type N2 and FEM-1 worms by 12.1 % and 8.4 %, respectively, i.e., to a similar extent as resveratrol; in addition, treatment with 100 µg/mL AP also significantly prolonged the mean lifespan of the same worms by 12.0 % and 5.3 %, respectively, i.e., to a similar extent as PC; the results of the study indicate that apple polyphenols procyanidins (PC) has SIR-2.1-dependent anti-ageing effects on Caenorhabditis elegans (a nematode (roundworm))]

 

 

 

 

Anti-allergic properties (see also ΄΄Eczema (atopic dermatitis)΄΄, ΄΄Allergic contact dermatitis΄΄, ΄΄Infant allergies΄΄, ΄΄Itching΄΄, and ΄΄Allergic rhinitis (hay fever)΄΄): Acai palm (berry), astragalus (one study found that astragalus may help reduce symptoms in people who have allergic rhinitis or hayfever), beta – glucans (for allergic rhinitis), fisetin// kaempferol// myricetin// quercetin// rutin (a study showed that the pharmacological actions of these flavonoids suggest their potential activity for treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases through the down-regulation of mast cell activation), fisetin (the pharmacological actions of fisetin produce new suggestion that fisetin is a potential medicine for treatment of inflammatory diseases through the down-regulation of mast cell activation), flavonoids, MSM (methylsulfonylmethane// one preliminary study showed found that supplementation with 2 600 mg per day of MSM for 30 days reduced symptoms of seasonal allergies), papaya, Plantago, polyphenol-enriched apple extract (a study concluded that polyphenol-enriched apple extract can attenuate food allergy symptoms in sensitized mice via two distinct possible mechanisms), probiotics & prebiotics (different studies performed in humans or rodents have supported a potential role for selected probiotics and prebiotics in reducing some allergic parameters// probiotic effects on allergy treatment are unclear, especially in human studies, however, they are potentially effective at short-term for prevention when they are administered in perinatal conditions// probiotics may lower the risk of pollen allergies// a clinical study performed with an infant cohort revealed a beneficial effect of prebiotics in preventing allergic manifestations at long-term), French maritime pine bark extract - Pycnogenol (some studies in people with allergies to birch shows that taking pycnogenol starting before allergy season begins might reduce allergy symptoms), Proanthocyanidins// oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes (OPCs), Quercetin (in Lab tests, quercetin shows to prevent immune cells from releasing histamines, chemicals that cause allergic reactions// researchers think that quercetin may help reduce symptoms of allergies, including allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, hives, and swelling of the face and lips, however, there is no evidence yet that it works in humans// a study concluded that quercetin and isoquercitrin are effective eosinophilic inflammation suppressors, suggesting a potential for treating allergies), Saffron (dried stigmas of the plant Crocus sativus// Crocus sativus inhibits histamine H1 receptors in animals, suggesting a potential use against allergic disorders), Spirulina (animal and test tube studies suggest that spirulina may protect against allergic reactions by stopping the release of histamines, substances that contribute to allergy symptoms, such as a runny nose, watery eyes, hives, and soft-tissue swelling, but it is not known if it helps people with allergies// spirulina exhibits anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting the release of histamine by mast cells), Strawberries [linocinnamarin and cinnamic acid isolated from Fragaria ananassa (strawberry) could be beneficial agents for alleviating symptoms of type I allergy// Note: although the above indicates that strawberry may helpon type I allergy, some people are allergic on strawberries and even an anaphylactoid reaction may occure to some people], bilberry (a study in mice concluded the anthocyanin-rich but not anthocyanidin-rich bilberry extract may be a useful dietary supplement for skin diseases involving pruritic (with itching) symptoms, such as chronic allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and rhinitis), omega – 6 fatty acids [women who are prone to allergies appear to have lower levels of gamma linolenic acid (GLA) in breast milk and blood; however well conducted research studies are needed]

 

Antianxiety (that treats anxiety) properties: see ΄΄Anxiety΄΄

 

 

Antiatherogenic properties: see ΄΄Atherosclerosis// atheromatosis prevention΄΄

 

 

Antibacterial effects (see also ΄΄Antimycobacterial properties΄΄ for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.// About Helicobacter pylori (implicated on Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD)) see ΄΄Peptic Ulcer disease (PUD)// gastric injury// gastroprotection΄΄): Aloe Vera (topical use), Astragalus, beta glucans// (1-->3)-beta-D-Glucans// PGG-glucan, bromelain, celery [a study showed that the essential oil of Apium graveolens (celery) was strongly inhibitory against Escherichia coli and moderately inhibitory against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus], chamomile, coenzyme Q-10, turmeric// curcumin [a study on curcumin bioconjugates, viz. di-O-tryptophanylphenylalanine curcumin (2), di-O-decanoyl curcumin (3), di-O-pamitoyl curcumin (4), di-O-bis-(gamma,gamma)folyl curcumin (6), C(4)-ethyl-O-gamma-folyl curcumin (8) and 4-O-ethyl-O-gamma-folyl curcumin (10) showed that conjugates 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 have shown very promising antibacterial activity with MIC ranging between 0.09 and 0.67 microM against Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli./// In a study isolation of curcumin from oleoresin contains approximately 40% oil. The curcumin oil was extracted from oleoresin the mother liquor and the hexane extract was separated into three fractions using silica gel column chromatography. These fractions were tested for antibacterial activity by pour plate method against Bacillus cereus, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fraction II eluted with 5% ethyl acetate in hexane was found to be most active fraction. The turmeric oil, fraction I, and fraction II were analyzed by GC and GC−MS. The results showed that ar-Turmerone, turmerone, and curlone were found to be the major compounds present in these fractions along with other oxygenated compounds./// An in vitro study revealed that curcumin showed an antagonistic effect on the antibacterial activity of the antibiotic nalidixic acid,  against the test strain; the study concluded that curcumin potentiated the antimicrobial action of the antibiotics cefixime, cephotaxime, vancomycin and tetracycline, suggesting a possible use of curcumin in combination therapy against Staphylococcus Aureus], Acerola [In an in vitro study. fractionation of barbados cherry (acerola fruit) extracts were performed by organic solvent extractions and column chromatographies, using two extraction methods – HE2 (hexane extract), AE2 (ethyl acetate extract), AE3, AE4, AE5, A8, A9 and A10 showed some relatively higher anti-bacterial activity on the Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 1228], anthocyanins, garlic, Liquorice [licorice; the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra; Note: deglycyrrhizinated licorice (DGL) is safer// In a study, the antibacterial activity of compounds obtained from licorice was measured against upper airway respiratory tract bacteria such as Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis; among the tested compounds, licoricidin exhibited the highest activity against all tested microorganisms with an MIC of 12.5 microg/mL; three coumarin derivatives, glycyrol, glycyrin and glycycoumarin also showed antibacterial activity], goldenseal// berberine (a compound found in goldenseal.// The results of an in vitro study show that Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal) leaf extracts possess a mixture of constituents that act against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) via several different mechanisms.// Another study showed that growth of Mycoplasma mycoides capri, E. coli and B. subtilis was inhibited by elderberry extract, oregano oil, ethanol extract of oregano leaves, and ethanol extract of goldenseal root. // Note: a study showed that goldenseal root powder increased the risk for liver tumors in rats and mice. Another study showed that administration of goldenseal root powder resulted in increased incidences of non-neoplastic lesions in the liver of male and female rats and male mice. There is little information about the safety of high dosages or the long-term use of goldenseal), Hawthorn extract (a study showed moderate bactericidal activity, especially against gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus flavus, Bacillus subtilis, and Lysteria monocytogenes), Ivy leaf, lemon balm (in a study, the most effective antibacterial activity was expressed on a multiresistant strain of Shigella sonei// in anotherstudy, the of essential oil from romanian lemon balm  sample exhibited a higher degree antibacterial activity than did Lavandula oil against Gram-positive strains), Mastic, Melatonin, Oldenlandia umbellate (Hedyotis umbellate// in a study the ethyl acetate eluate of the chloroform extract showed a zone of inhibition of 10mm against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli , at 20 mg//ml), palmitoleic acid e.g. from Macadamia oil or Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) (it may be useful in topical formulations for treatment of secondary gram-positive bacterial infections as a gram-positive bacteria antimicrobial in wound dressings// and as a natural gram-positive antimicrobial preservative in skin and hair care products), papaya (papaya seed could be used as an antibacterial agent for E.coli, S. aureus or Salmonella typhi), Plantago asiatica, polyphenols, Proanthocyanidins// oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes (OPCs), Propolis (propolis was found to have antibacterial activity against a range of commonly encountered cocci and Gram-positive rods, including the human tubercle bacillus), wine (both red and white wines contain effective anti-bacterial agents against strains of Streptococcus), grape phenolic extracts (a study showed that grape phenolic extracts, especially from pomace, are highly effective against specific virulence traits of Streptococcus mutans, despite major differences in their phenolic content), Reishi mushroom [Lingzhi mushroom], Rosemary essential oil, Royal jelly (a new potent antibacterial protein, for which the authors proposed the name royalisin, was found in royal jelly of the honeybee Apis mellifera – Royalisin was found to have potent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria at low concentrations, but not against Gram-negative bacteria// thus Royalisin may be involved in a defense system active against bacterial invasion of the honeybee), Sesame oil (lignans), St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum// a major constituent chemical, hyperforin, has antibacterial properties against gram – negative bacteria, although dosage, safety and efficacy has not been studied// hyperforin due to its possible antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects may be useful in the treatment of infected wounds and inflammatory skin diseases), Tannins (the antimicrobial activities of tannins are well documented// a study found that tannic acid and propyl gallate, but not gallic acid, were inhibitory to foodborne bacteria, aquatic bacteria, and off-flavor-producing microorganisms), Terpenoids, Spirostachys Africana [in a study, the bioassay-guided fractionation of ethanolic extract from bark of Spirostachys africana led to the isolation of four known compounds – compound 1 [d-Friedoolean-14-en-oic acid (3-acetyl aleuritolic acid)] exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 50 microg//ml against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhy, Vibrio cholera, Escherichia coli and Shigella dysentery], Trichodesma amplexicaule (in a study, the benzene extract was more potent against Staphylococcus aureus and Rhizobium phaseoli – also hexacosane was more active against E. coli and hexacosanoic acid had greater activity against Aspergillus flavus), Copaifera paupera [in a study, twelve known diterpenes 1 – 11 and 13, and three known sesquiterpenes 14 - 16, along with a new C(20) - C(15) terpenoid 17 were isolated from the oleoresin of the Peruvian medicinal plant Copaifera pauper: compounds 1 and 11 showed significant antimicrobial activity (MIC < 10 microg//ml) against Gram-positive bacteria, comparable with cephotaxime used as control, and compound 2 exhibited moderate cytotoxic (toxic for the cells) activity against four cancer cell lines], Wolfberry [Goji berry// a study showed that (+)-Lyoniresinol-3α-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of the root bark from Lycium chinense (Goji berry), exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from patients, and human pathogenic fungi without having any hemolytic effect on human erythrocytes (red blood cells)], Zinc, chlorella (a study in mice showed that hot water extracts of Chlorella vulgaris (CVE) might be effective in the treatment of opportunistic infection in retrovirus-induced immunodeficient patients), Calendula officinalis (an in vitro study showed that the methanol extract of C. officinalis exhibited better antibacterial activity against most of the bacteria tested, than ethanol extract), garlic [a study in pigs concluded that a beneficial, alleviating effect of garlic on the course and severity of an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in pigs was indicated by the reduced occurrence of characteristic pleuropneumonia lesions (27% of the lungs affected in the garlic-fed group vs. 47% in the control group) and a near to significant lower relative lung weight post mortem (after death) in the garlic-fed group]

 

 

 

 

Antibiotic – associated diarrhea [AAD// it occurs from the fact that the antibiotic causes imbalance at the microbiota (the gut flora) of the colon leading to overgrowth of pathogenic organisms such as the bacterium Clostridium difficile]: Probiotics [Probiotics can decrease the incidence and severity of AAD and can decrease the risk of AAD up to 50%, without side effects// Lactobacillus rhamnosus may help reducing the risk of AAD// some studies suggest that probiotics, especially Lactobacillus GG and S. boulardi, may help prevent diarrhea associated with taking antibiotics – probiotics may help in replacing the ΄΄friendly΄΄ intestinal bacteria destroyed by antibiotics// giving children Lactobacillus GG (Culturelle) along with antibiotics seems to reduce the diarrhea that sometimes occurs when taking antibiotics alone// probiotics may help treating diarrhea caused by the bacterium Clostridium difficile, the leading cause of hospital acquired intestinal infection in the United States, affecting virtually all cases of pseudomembranous colitis and up to 20% of cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea// a meta-analysis suggested that probiotics can be used to prevent antibiotic associated diarrhea and that Saccharomyces boulardii and Lactobacilli have the potential to be used in this situation// a study concluded that the use of probiotics for the treatment of primary and recurrent Clostridium difficile diarrhea looks promising: patients seem to have less recurrent Clostridium difficile diarrhea and early symptomatic improvement when using the probiotic Lactobacillus GG]

 

 

Anti-carcinogenic (anti – cancer)/ antineoplastic/ anti – proliferative/ anti-apoptotic/ anti- mutagenic / anti-tumor properties (see also ΄΄Leukemia΄΄ and ΄΄Lymphoma΄΄) (Note: Cancer should be treated with conventional medications. People should not use alternative therapies alone to treat cancer. If someone chooses to use complementary therapies along with conventional cancer treatment, he/she should make sure to tell all his/her doctors about this): artichoke [The findings of an in vitro study indicate that polyphenolic extracts from the edible part of artichokes (AEs) reduced cell viability, inhibited cell growth, triggered apoptotic (related to programmed cell death) mechanisms, and showed inhibitory properties against the invasive behavior of MDA-MB231 cancer cell line – Altogether, these data indicate the potential chemopreventive activity of artichoke polyphenolic extracts], Acai palm (berry), Aloe vera [The effect of Aloe Vera administration was studied on a pleural tumor in rat. Ascite hepatoma (liver cancer) cells injected into pleura of male rats and they were evaluated at different times. The results showed that the use of Aloe Vera proved a therapeutic method, and that the present experimental model could be useful in the study of other therapeutics treatments in vivo], anthocyanins (e.g. black raspberry has been studied against esophageal and colon cancer), red grape pomace extract (oenocyanin), anthocyanidins (especially delphinidin), Astragalus membranaceus [as an adjuvant; a study concluded that Astragaloside II, a monomer of Astragalus saponin, is a potent multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal agent and may be a potential adjunctive agent for hepatic (liver) cancer chemotherapy], beetroot/ betaine/ betanin (a study in mice showed that betanin significantly inhibits lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice and merits investigation as a chemopreventive agent for human lung cancer./ An epidemiological study suggested that consumption of choline and betaine was inversely associated with the risk of breast cancer), beta-carotene [it may reduce the risk of breast cancer in women before menopause and also may reduce the risk of ovarian cancer in women after menopause./ A study in rats concluded that beta-carotene may improve the immunity function and inhibit tumour growth in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)./ Note: there is some evidence that when smokers and people who are exposed to asbestos take beta-carotene supplements, their risk of lung cancer increases], beta – glucans (the results of a study showed that beta-glucan, an agent without evident toxicity, may be used to amplify tumor cell killing and may open new opportunities in the immunotherapy of cancer./ Another study showed that the efficiency of chemotherapy of Lewis lung carcinoma with cyclophosphamide (a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent used in cancer chemotherapy) was potentiated by seaweed-derived (1-->3)-beta-D-Glucan Phycarine administration./ In a mouse model study, beta 1,3 glucan in conjunction with interferon gamma inhibited tumors and liver metastasis. In some studies, beta-1,3 glucans enhanced the effects of chemotherapy. In a mouse carcinoma model, beta-1,3 glucans did not reduce tumor incidence, but was associated with reduced mortality in combination with cyclophosphamide (a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent used in cancer chemotherapy). In human patients with advanced gastric or colorectal cancer, the administration of beta-1,3 glucans derived from shiitake mushrooms, in conjunction with chemotherapy resulted in prolonged survival times], Andrographis paniculata [an in vitro study that evaluated the anticancer and immunomodulatory activity of the methanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata in human cancer and immune cells; the results indicate that the dichloromethane fraction of the methanolic extract retains the active compounds contributing for both the anticancer and immunostimulatory activity – dichloromethane fraction significantly inhibits the proliferation of HT-29 (colon cancer) cells and augments the proliferation human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) at low concentrations.// Another study that investigated the cellular processes and targets modulated by andrographolide (the major constituent of the extract of Andrographis paniculata) treatment in human cancer and immune cells showed that andrographolide treatment inhibited the in vitro proliferation of different tumor cell lines, representing various types of cancers; the in vivo anticancer activity of the compound was further substantiated against B16F0 melanoma syngenic and HT-29 xenograft models - the results suggest that andrographolide is an interesting pharmacophore with anticancer and immunomodulatory activities and hence has the potential for being developed as a cancer therapeutic agent], blackberry [an in vitro study concluded that Hull blackberry extract (HBE) has potent antioxidant, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory activities and that HBE-formulated products may have the potential for the treatment and/or prevention of cancer and/or other inflammatory diseases], black chokeberry (an in vitro study showed that the extract from black chokeberry seems to be also useful as an antioxidant in patients with breast cancer), blueberries (trials have shown that phenolic compounds from blueberries can inhibit colon cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis (programmed celld death); inhibit growth and stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells in vitro; and also have an effect primarily on androgen-dependant growth of prostate cancer cells and inhibit matrix metalloproteinase activity in DU145 human prostate cancer cells.// An in vitro study showed that blueberry anthocyanins and the respective anthocyanin-pyruvic acid adducts demonstrated anticancer properties by inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and by acting as cell antiinvasive factors and chemoinhibitors), Boswellia serrata/ boswellic acids such as acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) [a study concluded that boswellic acids, particularly AK-BA and K-BA have antiproliferative and apoptotic (apoptosis is programmed cell death) effects in human HT-29 cells – the apoptotic effect is mediated via a pathway dependent on caspase-8 activation, but independent of Fas/FasL interaction.// A study on rats demonstrated an influence of extract from gum resin (EGR) in rat glioma growth and might represent a new therapeutic option on glioma treatment in human in future.// An in vitro study concluded that acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) is a novel inhibitor of STAT3 activation and has potential in the treatment of cancer.// The results of an in vitro study indicate that 3-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA; the active principle of a gum resin from Boswellia serrata) – induced antitumor effects in colorectal cancer (CRC) occur, at least partly through the up-regulation of specific miRNA pathways – these data provide novel evidence that anticancer effects of boswellic acids are due in part to their ability to regulate cellular epigenetic machinery and further highlight the promise for this phytochemical in the preventative and therapeutic applications of colorectal cancer (CRC)], bromelain [proteolytic enzymes such as bromelain, trypsin, chymothrypsin and papain has been investigated in the treatment of breast and colorectal cancer and plasmacytoma/ also bromelain administered in mice with experimental colitis reduced the number of cancerous lesions in the colon.// a in vitro study concluded that the autophagy-inducing property of bromelain can be further exploited in breast cancer therapy.// A study concluded that the antitumoral activity of bromelain against sarcoma (S-37) and Ehrlich ascitic tumor (EAT), which are tumor models sensitive to immune system mediators, and the unchanged tumor progression in the metastatic model suggests that the antimetastatic action results from a mechanism independent of the primary antitumoral effect], Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) [an in vitro study that investigated the growth inhibitory effect of three CLA isomers (c9,t11-CLA, t9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA) on MCF-7 breast cancer cells, as well as their effect on LXR target genes revealed that t9,t11-CLA was the most efficient isomer by decreasing MCF-7 proliferation, inhibiting migration, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) after 24hours of treatment.// The results of an in vitro study highlight that t10,c12 CLA exerts its cytotoxic (toxic for the cells) effect through ROS (reactive oxygen species) generation and a subsequent ER stress-dependent apoptosis (programmed cell death) in colon cancer cells], boron – containing molecules [Calcium Fructoborate (CF) is a natural product from plants (can be produced by chemical synthesis as well) showed inhibitory effects on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells as well; inside cells CF acts as an antioxidant and induces the overexpression of apoptosis (programmed cell death) – related proteins and eventually apoptosis], L-Carnosine [it has been demonstrated that the dipeptide carnosine inhibits growth of cultured cells isolated from patients with malignant glioma (a tumor in the brain or spine).// A study on mice showed that although carnosine was not able to completely prevent tumor growth, a microscopic examination of tumors revealed that those from carnosine treated animals had a significant lower number of mitosis than untreated animals, confirming that carnosine affects proliferation in vivo], astaxanthin (an in vitro study concluded that astaxanthin showed anticancer effect by inducing cell apoptosis through the regulation of mitochondrial-dependent manner), catechins (epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) from green tea has been studied for breast cancer; specifically the results of an in vitro study indicate that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) down-regulates telomerase in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells, leading to the suppression of cell viability and induction of apoptosis (programmed cell death), thus providing the molecular basis for the development of EGCG as a novel chemopreventive and pharmacologically safe agent against breast cancer.// Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major and most photoprotective polyphenolic component of green tea; recent investigations and mechanistic studies support the photoprotective efficacy of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) against UV carcinogenesis (cancer development) – the oral administration of GTPs in drinking water or the topical application of EGCG prevents UVB-induced skin tumor development in mice), green tea polyphenols (have been studied against photocarcinogenesis, i.e. cancer development from UVB sun light), celery [an in vitro study concluded that the molecular determinants of inhibition of cell proliferation as well as apoptosis of celery seed extract (CSE) may be associated with cycle arrest in the S phase; the study showed that CSE had an anti-proliferation effect on human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner], chamomile [an in vitro study showed that the simultaneous application of German chamomile containing bisabololoxide A may reduce the dose of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; an anticancer agent).// Another in vitro study showed that exposure of chamomile extracts caused minimal growth inhibitory responses in normal cells, whereas a significant decrease in cell viability was observed in various human cancer cell lines; chamomile exposure resulted in differential apoptosis (programmed cell death) in cancer cells but not in normal cells at similar doses], chicory [a study that investigated the effects of two chicory fructans--oligofructose and long chain inulin on apoptosis (programmed cell death) and bacterial metabolism associated with carcinogenesis (cancer development) showed significant effect of chicory fructans on apoptosis and the results contribute to the growing evidence that chicory fructans may have cancer preventing properties], Chlorella vulgaris [the results of a study in mice showed that when CDF1 mice were fed daily with 10% dried powder of Chlorella vulgaris (CVP) containing diet before and after Meth A tumor inoculation, the growth of rechallenged Meth A tumor was significantly suppressed in an antigen-specific manner.// Another study showed that when a hot water extract of Chlorella vulgaris (CE) was injected into the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice inoculated with syngeneic Meth-A tumor cells, the survival times were strikingly prolonged; the authors suggested that Chlorella vulgaris (CE) – induced peritoneal exudate cells (PEC), presumably polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs), expressed an antitumor effect in cooperation with a host- or recipient-derived element(s) sensitive to irradiation], cinnamon [a study showed that the cinnamon-derived food factor trans-cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamaldeyde,  may represent an underappreciated chemopreventive dietary factor targeting colorectal carcinogenesis (cancer development)/ another study showed that trans-cinnamic aldehyde (CA), as a dietary Michael acceptor, has a potential anticancer activity], coenzyme Q-10 (studied for breast cancer/ a study showed that there is an inverse relationship between circulating Coenzyme-Q10 and breast cancer risk), chlorogenic acid – coffee (in a large US cohort, coffee was inversely associated with colon cancer, particularly proximal tumors.// Chlorogenic acid (CHL) is the most potent functional inhibitor of the microsomal glucose-6-phosphate translocase (G6PT), is thought to possess cancer chemopreventive properties; the results of a study showed a new G6PT function in glioma cells that could regulate the intracellular signalling and invasive phenotype of brain tumor cells, and that can be targeted by the anticancer properties of chlorogenic acid (CHL)], Acerola [In an in vitro study. fractionation of barbados cherry (acerola fruit) extracts were performed by organic solvent extractions and column chromatographies, using two extraction methods. Higher cytotoxic (toxic for the cells) activity was concentrated in fractions A4 and A6 (acetone extract), and H3 and HE3 (hexane extract). These four fractions showed higher cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines such as human oral squamous cell carcinoma (HSC-2) and human submandibular gland carcinoma (HSG), when compared with that against normal cells], Concord grape [in vitro studies indicate that Concord grape juice constituents can inhibit the promotion stage of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary (breast) tumorigenesis (cancer development), in part by suppressing cell proliferation], Cranberry (some test tube and animal studies suggest that cranberry may help stop cancer cells from growing), turmeric/ curcumin [Evidence from test tube and animal studies suggests that curcumin may help prevent or treat several types of cancers, including prostate, breast, skin, and colon cancer. Its preventive effects may be because it is a strong antioxidant, protecting cells from damage.// Curcumin has been demonstrated to inhibit carcinogenesis (cancer development) of murine (rat, mice) skin, stomach, intestine and liver./// Curcumin has been shown to interfere with multiple cell signaling pathways, including cell cycle (cyclin D1 and cyclin E), apoptosis (programmed cell death; activation of caspases and down-regulation of antiapoptotic gene products), proliferation (HER-2, EGFR, and AP-1), survival (PI3K/AKT pathway), invasion (MMP-9 and adhesion molecules), angiogenesis (the physiological process involving the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels) (VEGF), metastasis (CXCR-4) and inflammation (NF-kappaB, TNF, IL-6, IL-1, COX-2, and 5-LOX). Curcumin has been studied against leukemia and lymphoma, gastrointestinal cancers, genitourinary cancers, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, melanoma, neurological cancers, and sarcoma, reflecting its ability to affect multiple targets./// Another study showed that curcumin is a potent radiosesitizer, and it acts by overcoming the effects of radiation-induced pro-survival gene expression in prostate cancer.// Curcumin has been described as a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent; evidence suggests that curcumin can suppress tumor initiation, promotion and metastasis// Pre-clinical studies in a variety of cancer cell lines including breast, cervical, colon, gastric, hepatic, leukemia, oral epithelial, ovarian, pancreatic, and prostate have consistently shown that curcumin possesses anti-cancer activity in vitro and in pre-clinical animal models; curcumin may prove to be useful for the chemoprevention of colon cancer in humans./// Curcumin I (Cur I) and curcumin III (Cur III) are the yellow coloring phenolic compounds isolated from the spice turmeric. A study showed that Cur I inhibited benzopyrene- (BP) induced forestomach tumors in female Swiss mice; and Cur III inhibited dimethylbenzanthracene- (DMBA) induced skin tumors in Swiss bald mice. Cur I also inhibited DMBA-initiated, tetradeconyl phorbol acetate-promoted skin tumors in female Swiss mice. Studies revealed that curcumins exert anticarcinogenic activity by altering the activation and/or detoxification process of carcinogen metabolism. Cur I and Cur III also exhibit in vitro cytotoxicity (cell toxicity (here refers to cancer cells)) against human chronic myeloid leukemia, which is dose dependent. A study showed that curcumins inhibit cancer at initiation, promotion and progression stages of development./// A study concluded that the combination of curcumin and resveratrol could be an effective preventive/therapeutic strategy for colon cancer./// Several research studies have provided in-depth analysis of multiple targets through which curcumin induces protective effects against cancers including gastrointestinal, genitourinary, gynecological, hematological, pulmonary, thymic, brain, breast, and bone. Curcumin has the ability to inhibit carcinogenicity through the modulation of the cell cycle by binding directly and indirectly to molecular targets including transcription factors (NF-kB, STAT3, β-catenin, and AP-1), growth factors (EGF, PDGF, and VEGF), enzymes (COX-2, iNOS, and MMPs), kinases (cyclin D1, CDKs, Akt, PKC, and AMPK), inflammatory cytokines (TNF, MCP, IL-1, and IL-6), upregulation of proapoptotic (Bax, Bad, and Bak) and downregulation of antiapoptotic (apoptosis is the programmed cell death) proteins (Bcl(2) and Bcl-xL)./// An in vitro study suggested that curcumin alone and combinations of curcumin with endocrine therapy may be of therapeutic benefit for endocrine-resistant breast cancer.// The data of a study on mice confirm DM-1, a curcumin analog, as a chemotherapeutic agent with effective tumor control properties and a lower incidence of side effects in normal cells compared to dacarbazine (DTIC).// An in vitro study on mammary (breast) gland tumor cell line (ENU1564)showed that Meriva (R) (a proprietary curcumin-phosphatidylcholine phytosome complex) significantly reduced the expression of MMP-9 and lung metastasis of the cell line used in this experimental model. In conclusion, curcumin conjugated with phosphatidylcholine increased the efficacy of curcumin as an anticancer agent], dark chocolate, gamma linolenic acid (GLA) [a study found that women with breast cancer who took gamma linolenic acid (GLA), an omega-6 fatty acid, had a better response to tamoxifen chemotherapy], peanut oil-enriched diet [rich in ω-3 and ω9 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)] [a study on a murine (rat/mice) concluded that peanut oil-enriched diet protects against mammary cancer development by modulating tumour membrane fatty acids composition and LOX (lipoxygenase) and COX (cyclooxygenase) enzyme activities], omega – 3 fatty acids / fish oil [a study showed that omega – 3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intakes may reduce the risk of total and advanced prostate cancer./// A study in mice concluded that omega-3 fatty acids in high fat fish oil diet (HFFO) diet have beneficial effects against UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis (cancer development), and these effects may be associated with an inhibition on UVB-induced inflammatory response], feverfew (parthenolide, an active substance of feverfew  has been investigated for leukaemia), fisetin [has been studied for breast cancer and melanoma./// An in vitro study concluded that fisetin mediates antitumor and anti-inflammatory effects through modulation of NF-kappaB pathways./// A study showed that fisetin induced higher cytotoxicity (cell toxicity) in human breast cancer MCF-7 than in MDA-MB-231 cells; fisetin can trigger a novel form of atypical apoptosis (programmed cell death) in caspase-3-deficient MCF-7 cells; moreover, inhibition of autophagy (the degradation of the cell’s components thru the lysosomal machinery) by fisetin was shown as additional route to prompt anticancer activity in MCF-7 cells./// In their report, Syed et al. demonstrate that fisetin, a natural product without well established mechanisms, has activity against melanoma./// It has been demonstrated that 20–60 μmol/l fisetin inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase activities resulting in cell cycle arrest in HT-29 colon cancer cells. In a study, the results showed that fisetin induces apoptosis (programmed cell death) in HCT-116 cells via the activation of the death receptor- and mitochondrial-dependent pathway and subsequent activation of the caspase cascade; the induction of p53 results in the translocation of Bax to the mitochondria, which contributes to fisetin-induced apoptosis in HCT-116 cells./// A study demonstrated that fisetin, a natural flavonoid, induces apoptosis (programmed cell death) and inhibits invasion of chemoresistant pancreatic cancer (PaC) AsPC-1 cells through suppression of DR3-mediated NF-kappaB activation. The data of an in vitro study provided evidence that fisetin could provide a biological rationale for treatment of pancreatic cancer or as an adjuvant with conventional therapeutic regimens./// The results of a study indicated that fisetin exhibits anti-cancer effect and induces apoptosis (programmed cell death) in HeLa cell lines both in vitro and in vivo./// The data of an in vitro study indicate the usefulness of fisetin in prostate cancer chemoprevention through enhancement of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis (programmed cell death)], flavonoids [they may prevent cancer, such as lung cancer.// Certain dietary flavonols and flavones targeting cell surface signal transduction enzymes, such as protein tyrosine and focal adhesion kinases, and the processes of angiogenesis (the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels) appear to be promising candidates as anticancer agents./// The results of a study showed that total flavonoid intake was not associated with any or advanced adenoma recurrence. However, high intake of flavonols, which are at greater concentrations in beans, onions, apples, and tea, was associated with decreased risk of advanced adenoma recurrence. Similar inverse associations were observed to a smaller extent for isoflavonoids, the flavonol kaempferol, and the isoflavonoids genistein and formononetin. The study concluded that a flavonol-rich diet may decrease the risk of advanced adenoma recurrence./// In an in vitro study the chloroform-methanol extract of Euryops arabicus, collected from Saudi provenance, yielded a new kaurane diterpene (1) and seven methoxylated flavones (2-8), two of which are new (2 and 3). All metabolites had considerable antioxidant and immunestimulatory effects. All compounds showed anticancer activity with IC₅₀ in range 10-125 μM, whilst 2 and 6 showed significant anti-proliferative activity against HepG2 (IC₅₀ = 20 and 15 μM) and MCF-7 (IC₅₀ = 15 and 10 μM), respectively. This effect was attributed to significant S-phase cell cycle arrest], garlic/ aged garlic extract (AGE; also known as ‘kyolic’) [Garlic may strengthen the immune system, helping the body fight diseases such as cancer. In in vitro (test tubes) studies, garlic seems to kill cancer cells. In a study of 50 people with inoperable colorectal, liver, or pancreatic cancer, immune activity improved after they took aged garlic extract for 6 months], ginger [the rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in recent publications has been shown that possess anticancer properties./// A study demonstrated that the ethyl acetate fraction of ginger extract can inhibit the expression of the two prominent molecular targets of cancer, the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and c-Myc, in A549 lung cancer cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. As both telomerase inhibition and Myc inhibition are cancer-specific targets for cancer therapy, ginger extract might prove to be beneficial as a complementary agent in cancer prevention and maintenance therapy], Panax ginseng [Several studies suggest that Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) may reduce the risk of some types of cancers. In one observational study, researchers followed 4 634 people for 5 years and found that those who took ginseng had lower risk of lung, liver, pancreatic, ovarian, and stomach cancer, however the study could not be sure that other things – including healthy eating habits – were responsible for the lower risk of cancer. Also it found that taking ginseng only 3 times a year led to a big reduction in cancer risk, which is hard to believe. A number of studies have found that Asian ginseng seems to slow down or stop the growth of tumors, although researchers aren't yet sure how it might work in humans], American ginseng [American ginseng has been shown to inhibit tumor growth. In one laboratory study on colorectal cancer cells, researchers found that American ginseng possessed powerful anti-cancer properties./// A study supports the understanding that targeting MMP-2 by Dysregulated microRNA miR-29b is a mechanism by which Hexane extract of American Ginseng (HAG) suppresses the migration of colon cancer cells], MSM (methylsulfonylmethane/ a study suggested that MSM may induce cytotoxic effect on gastrointestinal cancer cell lines by apoptosis and cell cycle arrest), goldenseal (the results of the study in mice suggested anti-cancer potentials of the ethanolic extract of Hydrastis Canadensis (goldenseal) suitable for use as a supportive complementary medicine in liver cancer.// Note: a study showed that goldenseal root powder increased the risk for liver tumors in rats and mice. Another study showed that administration of goldenseal root powder resulted in increased incidences of non-neoplastic lesions in the liver of male and female rats and male mice. There is little information about the safety of high dosages or the long-term use of goldenseal), green tea (may protect against cancer/ a follow-up clinical study revealed that bladder cancer patients, particularly men, who drank green tea had a substantially better 5-year survival rate than those who did not/ also animal studies have shown that green tea helps protect against the development of liver tumors in mice), Holy basil (Tulsi), acetyl-L-carnitine and propionyl-L-carnitine (a Cochrane review mentions that on prostate cancer treatments there was some evidence that PDE5 inhibitors are more effective in combination with acetyl-L-carnitine and propionyl-L-carnitine), lycopene (a study suggested that lycopene could act as a chemopreventive agent against the growth and progression of colorectal cancer in a mouse xenograft model/ another study concluded that lycopene and beta-carotene supplementation suppressed the growth of prostate tumor cells, and the effects are likely associated with reduction of proliferation and with interference of the insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling - furthermore, the inhibition of VEGF by lycopene suggests that the antitumor mechanisms of lycopene also involve anti-angiogenesis), Mastic (a study showed that the hexane extract of mastic gum possessed antitumor activity against human colorectal cancer under the experimental conditions of the study), melatonin (it may improve the effectiveness of certain cancer medications used to fight tumors in the breast, lung, kidney, liver, pancreas, stomach, colon, prostate/ women with breast cancer tend to have lower levels of melatonin than those without the disease/ also preliminary evidence also suggests that melatonin may strengthen the effects of some chemotherapy drugs used to treat breast cancer/ in a small study of women who were taking tamoxifen for breast cancer but seeing no improvement, adding melatonin caused tumors to modestly shrink in more 28% of the women/ also people with prostate cancer have lower melatonin levels than men without the disease/ in one small-scale study, melatonin, combined with conventional medical treatment, improved survival rates in 9 out of 14 men with metastatic prostate cancer/ another study concluded that melatonin exerts an inhibitory effect on breast cancer cell invasion/ another study showed that melatonin treatment dramatically reduced the number of prostate cancer cells and stopped cell cycle progression), Milk thistle/ Silymarin (extracts from the seeds of milk thistle, Silybum marianum, are known commonly as silibinin and silymarin and possess anticancer actions on human prostate carcinoma in vitro and in vivo/ also silybin appears to have direct anticancer effects against prostate, breast and ectocervical tumor cells), Oldenlandia diffusa [Hedyotis diffusa/ a study demonstrated that ursolic acid, component of the H. diffusa, has significant anti-tumor activity in COLO 205 (colon cancer), Hep 3B (hepatocellular carcinoma) and H460 (lung cancer) cancer cells/ another study indicated that leukaemic cells HL60s are more sensitive to Oldenlandia diffusa than stimulated human blood lymphocytes PBLs and thus support a cytotoxic action for Oldenlandia diffusa that has some degree of specificity/ another study concluded that Oldenlandia diffusa extract (ODE) has immuno-modulating activity and anti-tumor activity in vitro through stimulating the immune system to kill or engulf tumor cells, which could be used clinically for immune function modulation and to treat tumor and other diseases/ another study concluded that Oldenlandia diffusa extract effectively inhibited the growth of all the eight cancer cell lines and induced significant increase of apoptosis (programmed cell death)- the extract exhibited minimum toxic effect on normal pancreatic cells and also, there was a significant inhibition of lung metastases in the animal model], olive oil [a study concluded that hydroxytyrosol may exert a protective activity against cancer by arresting the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in tumour cells, and suggest that hydroxytyrosol, an important component of virgin olive oil, may be responsible for its anticancer activity/ another study suggest that daily topical use of super virgin olive oil after sun bathing may delay and reduce UV-induced skin cancer development in human skin], omega – 3 fatty acids / fish oil (preliminary studies suggest that taking fish oil daily may help slow the progression of colon cancer in people with early stages of the disease/ a study on mice with breast cancer showed that EPA and DHA both inhibited the development of lung metastases and concluded that omega-3 fatty acids may have a place as adjuvant nutritional therapy in breast cancer and particularly as part of a neo-adjuvant regimen), papaya (the juice of papaya has an in vitro antiproliferative effect on liver cancer cells), pectin [in a study on human prostate cancer cells, fractionated pectin powder (FPP) induced apoptosis (approximately 40-fold above non-treated cells) in both cell lines/ another study suggested that modified citrus pectin (MCP) may lengthen the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time (PSADT) in men with recurrent prostate cancer], Plantago major, Psyllium (Ispaghula) ( most large, better-designed studies have found only a slight association between fiber intake and reduced colorectal cancer risk), polyphenols, phenolic-rich extracts from edible marine algae (may have an anti-proliferative effect on colon cancer), polyphenols and sterols extracted from virgin argan oil [a study demonstrated the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of polyphenols and sterols extracted from virgin argan oil (argan oil is produced from the kernels of the argan tree, and it is endemic to Morocco) and confirmed the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of to 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2) on prostate cancer cell], green/ black tea polyphenols [many laboratory studies have demonstrated the inhibitory effects of green tea polyphenols, especially EGCG, on carcinogenesis in animal models/ black tea was also found to be effective, although the activity was weaker than that of green tea in some experiments, but other studies showed that black tea polyphenols theaflavins exhibited stronger anticarcinogenic activity than did EGCG/ caffeine in tea was also important for tea to prevent tumorigenesis (tumor development)/ there was limited evidence that green tea could reduce the incidence of liver cancer/ in prostate cancer, observational studies with higher methodological quality and the only included RCT (randomized controlled trial) suggested a decreased risk in men consuming higher quantities green tea or green tea extracts/ however, there was limited to moderate evidence that the consumption of green tea reduced the risk of lung cancer, especially in men], phenolic-rich extracts from edible seaweeds (they may inhibit colon cancer proliferation at low doses), pomegranate [some extracts may help reduce blood supply to tumors, starving them and making them smaller/ most studies have focused on breast and prostate cancer cells/ a study showed that pomegranate juice extract given to mice slowed down the progression of lung tumors/ in one human study, men who had surgery or radiation for prostate cancer significantly lengthened the amount of time it took for their PSA levels to double by drinking pomegranate juice each day/ a study suggested that pomegranate juice may have cancer-chemopreventive as well as cancer-chemotherapeutic effects against prostate cancer in human/ in another study in a murine (rat/mice) mammary gland organ culture, fermented juice polyphenols effected 47% inhibition of cancerous lesion formation induced by the carcinogen DMBA/ another study indicated that the ellagitannins and urolithins released in the colon upon consumption of pomegranate juice in considerable amounts could potentially curtail the risk of colon cancer development, by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death)], Proanthocyanidins/ oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes (OPCs)/ Grape seed proanthocyanidins [the Grape seed proanthocyanidins demonstrated significant cytotoxicity (toxicity to the cells) towards human breast, lung and gastric adenocarcinoma (a type of cancer) cells, while enhancing the growth and viability of normal cells/ the grape seed proanthocyanidins also protected against tobacco-induced apoptotic cell death (programmed cell death) in human oral keratinocytes/ a study reported that flavanol dimers B1 – B4 (oligomeric procyanidins) decrease in vitro growth of the androgen-sensitive (LnCaP) and androgen-resistant (DU145) human prostate cancer lines], French maritime pine bark extract – Pycnogenol [a study concluded that pycnogenol selectively induced death in human mammary cancer cells (MCF-7) and not in normal human mammary MCF-10 cells], Probiotics (it has been studied for reducing the recurrence of bladder cancer), Propolis (the results of a study indicated that the Brazilian propolis extracts show promise as chemotherapeutic agents as well as preventive agents against prostate cancer/ another study concluded that a polymeric nanoparticle-encapsulated formulation of propolis, propolis nanofood, demonstrated comparable in vitro therapeutic efficacy to free propolis against a panel of human pancreatic cancer cell lines), pterostilbene (a study showed that treatment of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro with pterostilbene leads to inhibition of cell proliferation and/or cell death, cell cycle arrrest, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and activation of effector caspases/ thus, this naturally occurring agent may have a role in treating pancreatic cancer/ another study concluded that the data with pterostilbene in suppressing colon tumorigenesis, cell proliferation as well as key inflammatory markers in vivo and in vitro suggest the potential use of pterostilbene for colon cancer prevention/ another study demonstrated that the association of pterostilbene and quercetin inhibits metastatic melanoma growth and extends host survival/ another study showed that pterostilbene significantly decreased cell viability in lung cancer cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner/ also, a study concluded that pterostilbene could serve as a new and promising agent for the treatment of sensitive and chemoresistant bladder cancer cells/ another study concluded that pterostilbene treatment inhibits the growth of breast cancer in vitro through caspase-dependent apoptosis), Quercetin [a study concluded that quercetin has antitumor activity by triggering apoptosis (programmed cell death) and that HSP70 may affect quercetin-induced apoptosis/ another study demonstrated that exposure of gastric cancer cells AGS and MKN28 to quercetin resulted in pronounced pro-apoptotic effect through activating the mitochondria pathway/ another study demonstrated that preventive effect of quercetin on hepatocarcinoma (liver cell cancer) in rats by RAPD-PCR, tracing - the effect on p53 gene and by histopathological evidence - thus, it was proved that quercetin exerted its preventive effect via decreased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant activity], Red yeast rice [a study showed that Chinese red yeast rice significantly reduced tumor volumes of androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate xenograft tumors compared with animals receiving vehicle alone/ studies have shown that red yeast rice contains substances that are similar to prescription statin medications: one of these substances, called monacolin K, has the same makeup as the ΄΄statin΄΄ drug lovastatin (statins are prescribed to lower LDL cholesterol levels and help to reduce the risk of heart disease)/ researchers are notsure if the cholesterol-lowering effect of red yeast rice is due to the presence of lovastatin or other compounds in red yeast rice, but because many red yeast rice supplements did contain lovastatin, the FDA (Food and Drug Administration of the USA) considered them to be drugs, not supplements, and required that manufacturers remove any red yeast rice products that contained lovastatin from the market/ FDA’s position is that red yeast rice products that contain monacolin K are identical to the drug lovastatin and, thus, subject to regulation as a drug], Reishi mushroom [Lingzhi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum)/ studies have shown that Reishi muhroom has anti-neoplastic effects against some types of cancer (including epithelial ovarian cancer) and it may prevent metastasis/ a study concluded that Ganoderma lucidum clearly demonstrates anticancer activity in experiments with cancer cells and has possible therapeutic potential as a dietary supplement for an alternative therapy for breast and prostate cancer/ a study concluded that Ganoderma lucidum inhibits prostate cancer-dependent angiogenesis (vessel formation) by modulating MAPK and Akt signaling and could have potential therapeutic use for the treatment of prostate cancer/ another study concluded that Ganoderma lucidum inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells and contain biologically active compounds with specificity against estrogen receptor and NF-kappaB signaling, and implicate G. lucidum as a suitable herb for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of breast cancer/ it may also sensitize hepatoma (liver cancer) cells to the oxygenated triterpenoids], Resveratrol [a study concluded that resveratrol inhibits pancreatic cancer stem cell characteristics in human and Kras(G12D) transgenic mice by inhibiting pluripotency maintaining factors and epithelial-mesenchymal transition- thus, resveratrol can be used for the management of pancreatic cancer/ another study concluded that resveratrol has a direct antiproliferative effect on human breast epithelial cells that is independent of the estrogen receptor status of the cells - thus, this dietary compound is a potential chemopreventive agent for both hormone responsive and non-responsive breast cancer/ another study showed that combination of liposomal forms of curcumin and resveratrol significantly decreased prostatic adenocarcinoma in vivo – also in vitro studies revealed that curcumin plus resveratrol effectively inhibit cell growth and induced apoptosis], Rhodiola rosea, Rosemary [carnosol is a substance in rosemary that is promising for cancer chemoprevention and is an anti-cancer agent/ rosemary may have some anticarcinogenic properties/ a study concluded that carnosol is one rosemary constituent that can prevent DMBA-induced DNA damage and tumor formation in the rat mammary gland, and, thus, has potential for use as a breast cancer chemopreventative agent/ another study demonstrated that crude ethanolic rosemary extract (RO) has differential anti-proliferative effects on human leukemia and breast carcinoma cells], Royal jelly [studies suggest that the 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) found in royal jelly may inhibit the vascularization of tumors/ a study indicated that 10HDA exerts an inhibitory effect on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis, partly by inhibiting both cell proliferation and migration/ in a study on mice that examined the therapeutic royal jelly application employing the Sarcoma-180 ascites tumor, which gave a moderate survival period of 16 days, the increased life span was 9.3 approximately 19.3%/ and with the Ehrlich ascites tumor (survival period of 22.1 days), the increased life span was 20.4% (for RJ 10 mg/kg . day) and 17.6% (for RJ 1 000 mg/kg . day)], Saffron [dried stigmas of the plant Crocus sativus/ Studies in animal models and with cultured human malignant cell lines have demonstrated antitumor and cancer preventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients/ crocetin, a carotenoid constituent of saffron, has shown significant potential as an anti-tumor agent in animal models and cell cultures/ saffron inhibits DMBA-induced skin carcinoma in mice when the condition is treated early/ also saffron, crocins, and crocetin inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation)/ extracts of saffron have been reported to inhibit cell growth of human tumor cells – in a study cells treated with crocin exhibited wide cytoplasmic vacuole-like areas, reduced cytoplasm, cell shrinkage and pyknotic nuclei, suggesting apoptosis (programmed cell death) induction/ it has been reported that saffron, crocins and crocetin inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation/ a study showed significant reduction in papilloma (a benign epithelial tumor) formation with saffron application in the pre (before) – initiation and post (after) – initiation periods, and particular when the agent was given both pre- and post-initiation/ a study showed that saffron extract itself and some of its ingredients displayed a dose-dependent inhibitory activity against different types of human malignant cells in vitro – HeLa cells were more susceptible to saffron than other tested cells/ another study concluded that Crocetin affects the growth of cancer cells by inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis, enhancing anti-oxidative system, inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) and hindering growth factor signaling pathways], Salvia miltiorrhiza [Danshen/ Salvia miltiorrhiza may have anti-cancer properties/ it may stop the spread of several different cancer cell types by interrupting the cell division process and also by causing apoptosis (programmed cell death) of the cancer cells/ a study that investigated the effect of Danshen on the proliferation of breast cancer cells showed that Danshen strongly inhibited the proliferation of both MCF-7 vec cells and MCF-7 HER2 cells/ another study showed that tanshinone I (T1) from the Chinese herb Salvia Miltiorrhiza may be an efficacious and safe chemopreventive or therapeutic agent against prostate cancer progression], Saw palmetto (limited in vitro and animal model studies suggest possible anti-tumor activity and potential for use in the treatment of cancer, however these results have not been confirmed with human trials/ animal studies show that saw palmetto inhibits the growth of tumor cells, indicating that it may be helpful in the treatment of prostate cancer/ the results of a study indicate that Saw Palmetto might be useful for the treatment of individuals with prostate cancer), Schisandra chinensis [Wu wei zi/ a study suggested that schizandrin, one of the main dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans present in the fruit of Schisandra chinensis, inhibits cell proliferation through the induction of cell cycle arrest with modulating cell cycle-related proteins in human breast cancer cells/ another study suggested that gomisin N, a lignan isolated from Schisandria chinensis, is an anti-cancer drug candidate capable of inhibiting the proliferation and inducing the apoptosis (programmed cell death) of human hepatic (liver) carcinomas], Sea – backthorn [Hippophae rhamnoides/ the seed oil has been found to provide anti-tumor effects in preliminary laboratory studies/ a study suggests that Hippophae fruit is able to decrease carcinogen-induced for stomach and skin tumorigenesis, which might involve up-regulation of phase II and antioxidant enzymes as well as DNA-binding activity of IRF-1, a known antioncogenic transcription factor causing growth suppression and apoptosis (programmed cell death) induction for its anticancer effect/ there is also a report against human hepatocellular (liver cell) carcinoma cells (BEL-7402) of isorhamnetin, a flavonol aglycone isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Hippophae rhamnoides/ another study in human breast carcinoma cell line Bcap-37 concluded that apoptosis (programmed cell death) of Bcap-37 cells induced by flavonoids from seed residues of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (FHR) relates with various genes through co-regulating of intracellular and extracellular signal transduction pathways], Selenium [there is some evidence that Selenium may affect not only cancer risk but also progression and metastasis/ a study showed that Selenium – enriched Spirulina platensis extract (Se-SE) inhibited the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells through induction of G1 cell cycle arrest and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis (programmed cell death)], Sesame oil [lignans/ a study reported that sesamin, a major lignan constituent of sesame, induces growth arrest at the G1 phase in cell cycle progression in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/ moreover, sesamin dephosphorylates tumor-suppressor retinoblastoma protein (RB)/ it was also shown that inhibition of MCF-7 cell proliferation by sesamin is correlated with down-regulated cyclin D1 protein expression, a proto-oncogene that is overexpressed in many human cancer cells], American skullcap [Scutellaria lateriflora] [the substance beta – Elemene found in the herb has potential anti-cancer properties in vitro/ Scutellaria lindbergii exerts cytotoxic (toxic for the cells) effects in different cancer cell lines], Chinese skullcap [Scutellaria baicalensis] [an in vitro study concluded that Scutellaria baicalensis strongly inhibits cell growth in all cancer cell lines tested, however, prostate and breast cancer cells (PC-3, LNCaP, and MCF-7) are slightly more sensitive than other type of cancer cells – it also inhibits PGE(2) production, indicating that suppression of tumor cell growth may be due to its ability to inhibit COX-2 activity/ another study showed that Scutellaria baicalensis selectively and effectively inhibits cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo and can be an effective chemotherapeutic agent for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) – inhibition of PGE(2) synthesis via suppression of COX-2 expression may be responsible for its anticancer activity/ another study showed that wogonin, an active ingredient of Chinese herb medicine Scutellaria baicalensis,   at the dose of 1 –10μM, which did not induce apoptosis, significantly inhibited the mobility and invasion activity of human gallbladder carcinoma GBC-SD cells and suggested that wogonin inhibits cell mobility and invasion by upregulating the metastasis suppressor maspin/ another study concluded that baicalein, a Scutellaria baicalensis derived polyphenol, induces apoptosis (programmed cell death) in pancreatic cancer cells through down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 protein], Spirulina [experimental studies in animal models have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of Spirulina algae on oral carcinogenesis (cancer development)/ in one placebo-controlled study, taking spirulina seemed to reduce a precancerous lesion known as leukoplakia in people who chewed tobacco/ more research is needed/ another study showed that extract of Spirulina-Dunaliella algae was shown to prevent tumor development in hamster buccal pouch/ oral administration of hot-water extract of Spirulina, cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, leads to augmentation of NK (natural killer cells) cytotoxicity (cell toxicity) in humans – a study showed that NK (natural killer cells) activation by Spirulina has some advantage in combinational use with BCG-cell wall skeleton for developing adjuvant-based antitumor immunotherapy/ another study showed that Selenium -enriched Spirulina platensis extract (Se-SE) inhibited the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells through induction of G1 cell cycle arrest and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis (programmed cell death)], Phytosterols [stanol esters (plant stanol esters) & plant sterols/ considerable emerging evidence supports the inhibitory actions of phytosterols on lung, stomach, as well as ovarian and breast cancer/ a study concluded that beta-sitosterol may induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) through the two pathways but was more pronounced on the intrinsic pathway], Strawberries (a study showed that dietary freeze-dried, or lyophilized, strawberry powder inhibits N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine-induced squamous cell carcinoma in the rat esophagus/ another study reported the isolation and structural characterization of 10 phenolic compounds from strawberry extracts and showed that crude extracts and pure compounds inhibited the growth of human oral (CAL-27, KB), colon (HT29, HCT-116), and prostate (LNCaP, DU145) cancer cells with different sensitivities observed between cell lines], Sulforaphane & isothiocyanates [found e.g. in broccoli sprouts/ isothiocyanates, such as phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and sulforaphane, have been shown to inhibit carcinogenesis and tumorigenesis (cancer and tumor development, respectivelly) and as such are useful chemopreventive agents against the development and proliferation of cancers/ isothiocyanates (found in broccoli, cauliflower, and brussel sprouts) may suppress tumor growth and hormone production/ isothiocyanates and sulforaphane, found in cruciferous vegetables, may block the effects of carcinogens and suppress tumor growth/ sulforaphane, in a study, downregulated the Wnt/ beta – ceratin self-renewal pathway in breast cancer stem cells/ sulforaphane is in numerous clinical trials studied for prostate cancer/ when applied topically, sulforaphane may protect skin against UV radiation damage and thus potentially against skin cancer/ a study supported the use of sulforaphane for the chemoprevention of breast cancer stem cells/ another study indicated that sulforaphane (SFN) – induced apoptosis (programmed cell death) in prostate cancer cells is initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and that both intrinsic and extrinsic caspase cascades contribute to the cell death caused by this highly promising cancer chemopreventive agent/ another study concluded that sulforaphane is an effective chemopreventive compound against tongue cancers and prostate cell angiogenesis (the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels) in vitro, and that the HIF-1alpha target provides a new sight into the mechanisms of sulforaphane’s inhibition against tumor cell proliferation], Tannins (tea polyphenols and many tannin components were suggested to be anticarcinogenic/ many tannin molecules have also been shown to reduce the mutagenic activity of a number of mutagens/ the anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic potentials of tannins may be related to their antioxidative property), Taraxacum officinale [the common dandelion/ a study showed that the crude extract of dandelion leaf (DLE) decreased the growth of MCF-7/AZ breast cancer cells in an ERK-dependent manner, whereas the aqueous extracts of dandelion flower (DFE) and root (DRE) had no effect on the growth of either cell line, and suggested that Taraxacum officinale (TO) extracts or individual components present in the extracts may be of value as novel anti-cancer agents/ another study showed that treatment with dandelion root extract (DRE)  has proven novel in specifically inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in chemoresistant (resistance to chemotherapy) melanoma, without toxicity to healthy cells], Terpenoids [a large number of terpenoids exhibit cytotoxicity (cell toxicity) against a variety of tumor cells and cancer preventive as well as anticancer efficacy in preclinical animal models/ diterpenoid paclitaxel, and its semi-synthetic analogue docetaxel, have entered clinical use against established breast and prostate cancer/ natural terpenoids, including monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids and tetraterpenoids, are able to inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce tumor cell death – the efficacy of these terpenoids against breast or prostate cancer cells, as demonstrated in pre-clinical studies support clinical application of these naturally occurring terpenoids in treatment of hormone-related human cancers], Copaifera paupera [in a study, twelve known diterpenes 1 – 11 and 13, and three known sesquiterpenes 14 - 16, along with a new C(20) - C(15) terpenoid 17 were isolated from the oleoresin of the Peruvian medicinal plant Copaifera pauper: compounds 1 and 11 showed significant antimicrobial activity (MIC < 10 microg/ml) against Gram-positive bacteria, comparable with cephotaxime used as control, and compound 2 exhibited moderate cytotoxic (toxic for the cells) activity against four cancer cell lines], Vitex agnus castus [the data of a study on human prostate epithelial cell lines suggest that Vitex agnus-castus fruits (VACF) contain components that inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) in human prostate epithelial cell lines/ thus the extract may be useful for the prevention and/or treatment not only of benign prostatic hyperplasia but also of human prostate cancer], Wheatgrass [a study, in which local health supplement wheatgrass and mixture of fibers were investigated in vitro using various cancerous cell line and normal blood cell culture, showed that both extracts induced apoptosis (programmed cell death) where early apoptosis had been detected concurrently with the reduction of percentage of cell viability, and concluded that these health products can be a potential alternative supplement for leukaemia patients], Wolfberry [Goji berry/ a study showed that Lycium barbarum (Goji berry) polysaccharides (LBPs) might significantly inhibit PC-3 tumor growth in nude mice – both the tumor volume and weight of the Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group/ another study showed that MCF-7 cells retain their mitogenic and metabolic response to 17beta-estradiol (E2) and Lycium barbarum (Goji berry) downregulates E2-stimulated growth via the formation of antiproliferative 2-OHE1 and accelerated conversion of mitogenic 16alpha-OHE1 to antimitogenic E3 (perhaps this implies that it may be used against breast cancer)/ another study showed the Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) polysaccharide (LBP)-induced interruption of the cell cycle in human colon carcinoma cells], Zinc [Zinc accumulation inhibits the invasive/migration activities in malignant prostate cells/ a study concluded that the enhanced sensitivity of prostate cancer (PCa) cells to ionophore Zn-pyrithione (ZP) and the apparent ability of ZP and the chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) to kill quiescent and rapidly dividing cells in a p53-independent manner suggest that ZP/TPEN might be used to develop adjunct treatments for prostate cancer/ however a study implied that chronic zinc oversupply may play a role in prostate carcinogenesis (cancer development)/ a study with a prospective cohort showed that long-term supplemental zinc intake was associated with reduced risk of clinically relevant advanced disease of prostate cancer], astragalus [in a study a lectin (AMML) from the roots of Astragalus mongholicus was extracted and purified; human cervical carcinoma cell line (HeLa), human osteoblast-like cell line (MG63) and human leukemia cell line (K562) were used to check the effects of AMML on cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle; the results showed maximum growth inhibition (92%) with HeLa cells, followed by K562 cells (84%) and MG63 (48%) cells; the study also reported a significant cell cycle arrest at S phase of HeLa cells by AMML], black raspberry [it has been studied for esophageal and also for breast, cervical, skin cancer, oral intraepithelial neoplasia, intestinal tumors and ulcerative colitis related neoplastic events.// To date, the results support that daily consumption of lyophilized black raspberries (LBRs) promotes reductions in the urinary excretion of two markers of oxidative stress, 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α (8-Iso-PGF2) and, to a lesser more-variable extent, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), among patients with Barrett’s esophagus (BE; a premalignant (that may lead to cancer) esophageal condition usually related to gastric content regurgitation).// Another study concluded that the selective effects of the EtOH extract on growth and apoptosis (programmed cell death) of highly tumorigenic rat esophageal epithelial cells in vitro may be due to preferential uptake and retention of its component anthocyanins, and this may also be responsible for the greater inhibitory effects of freeze-dried whole berries on tumor cells in vivo.// The results of an in vitro study on human cervical cancer cell lines showed that non-toxic levels of RO-ET significantly inhibited the growth of human cervical cancer cells, in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner to a maximum of 54%, 52% and 67%, respectively; flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy demonstrated RO-ET-induced apoptosis (programmed cell death) in all cell lines.// The results of another in vitro study suggest that black raspberry extracts (RSE) may act as a potent radiosensitizer by overcoming the effects of NFkappa B mediated radioprotection in human breast cancer cells.// Another study showed that at 48 hours post (after) – UVB exposure, topical black raspberry extract (BRE) treatment significantly reduced edema, p53 protein levels, oxidative DNA damage, and neutrophil activation – the ability of topical black raspberry extract (BRE) to reduce acute UVB-induced inflammation and to decrease tumor development in a long-term model provides compelling evidence to explore the clinical efficacy of black raspberry extract (BRE) in the prevention of human skin cancers.// Another in vitro study concluded that freeze-dried black raspberry gel application modulated oral intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN) gene expression profiles, ultimately reducing epithelial COX-2 protein; in a patient subset, berry gel application also reduced vascular densities in the superficial connective tissues and induced genes associated with keratinocyte (the predominant cell type in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin) terminal differentiation], black cohosh [A study that examined the chemopreventive potential and action of the herb black cohosh on Sprague-Dawley rats showed that among female rats treated at 35.7 and 7.14 mg/kg b.w. there was a dose-related reduction of the incidence of mammary (breast) adenocarcinomas when compared to the treatment of 0.714 mg/kg b.w., with a protection index for mammary adenocarcinomas of 87.5 and 48.8%, respectively; also black cohosh reduced Ki-67 and cyclin D1 protein expression in fibroadenomas, by immunohistochemistry – these results suggest that black cohosh may have chemopreventive potential for mammary cancer.// Note: there has been some concern that black cohosh may contain plant based estrogens, or phytoestrogens, which can stimulate the growth of breast tumors; there is also a concern about liver toxicity; also a study showed that it may cause blood problems], black tea [Studies have showed that green tea and black tea extracts and their major polyphenolic constituents protect against UVB light-induced carcinogenesis (cancer development) in murine (mice & rats) skin./ A study showed that administration of black tea was comparable to green tea as an inhibitor of UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis (cancer development) in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-initiated SKH-1 mice; oral (by mouth) administration of decaffeinated black tea or decaffeinated green tea also had a marked inhibitory effect on UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis (cancer development) in DMBA-initiated SKH-1 mice, but these tea preparations were slightly less effective than the regular teas at the high dose level], Calendula officinalis [ten oleanane-type triterpene glycosides, 1-10, including four new compounds, calendulaglycoside A 6'-O-methyl ester (2), calendulaglycoside A 6'-O-n-butyl ester (3), calendulaglycoside B 6'-O-n-butyl ester (5), and calendulaglycoside C 6'-O-n-butyl ester (8), along with five known flavonol glycosides, 11-15, were isolated from the flowers of marigold (Calendula officinalis); upon evaluation of the cytotoxic (toxic for the cells) activity against human cancer cell lines in vitro in the NCI Developmental Therapeutics Program, two triterpene glycosides, 9 and 10, exhibited their most potent cytotoxic effects against colon cancer, leukemia, and melanoma cells], cat’s claw, devil’s claw [Two follicular lymphoma patients who had objective tumour regression after taking Devil's Claw without cytotoxic therapy are reported here. Patient 1 presented with coexistent immunoglobulin G plasma cell dyscrasia and stage iiia lymphoma (nodes 5 cm in diameter). Computed tomography scan 10 months later showed partial regression. On enquiry, it was learned that the patient was taking Devil's Claw and Essiac. This patient later developed overt myeloma, at which time he stopped the herbal supplements and underwent high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation, since which no lymphoma progression has occurred. Patient 2 presented with stage IIIA lymphoma (nodes 2.5 cm in diameter). He learned of patient 1 through a lymphoma patient support group and started Devil's Claw. Computed tomography scan 11 months later showed decreased adenopathy and splenomegaly, which has been sustained for 4 years. The key issue is whether disease regression was ‘spontaneous’ or causally related to therapy with devil’s Claw. The timing of the response suggests a positive effect. Further investigation is needed], Echinacea [the data of an in vitro study indicate that cichoric acid, the major compound of Echinacea purpurea flowers, has a strong growth-inhibitory effect against colon cancer cells, presumably resulting from the reduced telomerase activity and the induction of apoptosis (programmed cell death); overall, the effects of 50% aqueous ethanol extract of Echinacea purpurea flowers and cichoric acid may have provided in vitro evidence for the use as chemotherapeutic agents], omega – 6 fatty acids [one study found that women with breast cancer who took gamma linolenic acid (GLA) had a better response to tamoxifen (a drug used to treat estrogen sensitive breast cancer) than those who took only tamoxifen; other studies suggest that GLA inhibits tumor activity among breast cancer cell lines.// The results of an in vitro study showed that the fatty acid gamma-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3n-6) enhances the cytotoxicity (toxicity for the cells) of docetaxel (anti – mitotic chemotherapy medicine for cancer) in human breast cancer cells by mechanisms other than lipoperoxidation, and that GLA-induced transcriptional repression of HER-2/neu oncogene might be one component of the mechanisms of this interaction./// Note: there is some research suggesting that a diet rich in omega-6 fatty acids may promote breast cancer development], feverfew [A study demonstrated that parthenolide (PTL), a naturally occurring small molecule, induces robust apoptosis (programmed cell death) in primary human AML (Acute Myelogenous Leukemia) cells and blast crisis CML (Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia) (bcCML) cells while sparing normal hematopoietic cells. In comparison to the standard chemotherapy drug cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C), PTL is much more specific to leukemia cells. The molecular mechanism of PTL-mediated apoptosis is strongly associated with The study concluded that the activity of parthenolide (PTL) triggers LSC (Leukemia Stem Cells)-specific apoptosis (programmed cell death) and as such represents a potentially important new class of drugs for LSC-targeted therapy.// In an in vitro study, feverfew ethanolic extract inhibited the growth of all three types of cancer cells with a half-effective concentration (EC50) of 1.5 mg/mL against Hs605T, 2.1 mg/mL against MCF-7, and 0.6 mg/mL against SiHa. Among the tested constituents of feverfew (i.e., parthenolide, camphor, luteolin, and apigenin), parthenolide showed the highest inhibitory effect], safrole (constituent of spices such as black pepper) [the findings of a study indicate that safrole – an important food-borne phytotoxin that exhibits in many natural products such as oil of sassafras and spices such as anise, basil, nutmeg, and pepper – has a cytotoxic (toxic for the cells; here refers to the cancer cells) effect in human tongue squamous carcinoma SCC-4 cells by inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death); the induction of apoptosis of SCC-4 cells by safrole is involved in mitochondria- and caspase-dependent signal pathways.//// Note: safrole, although shown that has anti-apoptotic and anticancer effects on this study, is a weak carcinogen], piperine – black pepper [Piperine, a major alkaloid constituent of black pepper, has previously been reported to have anti-cancer activity in variety of cancer cell lines. A study the investigated the anti-tumor mechanisms of piperine on androgen dependent and androgen independent prostate cancer cells showed that piperine inhibited the proliferation of LNCaP, PC-3, 22RV1 and DU-145 prostate cancer cells in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, Annexin-V staining demonstrated that piperine treatment induced apoptosis (programmed cell death) in hormone dependent prostate cancer cells (LNCaP). The authors’ evaluations further show that there is a significant reduction of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) levels following piperine treatment in LNCaP cells. In conclusion, the results of the study support further investigation of piperine as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of prostate cancer.//// Piperine, an alkaloid phytochemical found in the fruit of black and long pepper plants, is reported to inhibit the growth of cancer cells; a study investigated the effect of piperine on the growth of HRT-18 human rectal adenocarcinoma cells (adenocarcinoma is the most common type of colorectal cancer (bowel cancer); the study concluded that the cytostatic ((cancer) cell growth inhibition) and cytotoxic (toxic for the (cancer) cells) effects of piperine on rectal cancer cells suggest that this dietary phytochemical may be useful in cancer treatment], flaxseed (linseed) [in a study, postmenopausal (after menopause) women who were newly diagnosed with breast cancer ate a muffin with 25 grams dietary flaxseed every day for 40 days; the study found that adding flaxseed to the diet may have the potential to reduce tumor growth in women with breast cancer./// Animal studies show that lignans (flaxseed, but not flaxseed oil contains lignans) may slow the growth of colon tumor cells; population studies suggest that flaxseed may reduce the number of abnormal cell growths, which are early markers of colon cancer.//// An in vitro study in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells showed that dietary flaxseed containing alpha – linolenic acid (ALA) and lignans causes a decrease in cell proliferation and an increase in apoptosis resulting in the effective chemoprevention for intestinal and colon tumor development.///An in vitro study that investigated the in vitro effects of flaxseed sprouts on cell growth and apoptosis (programmed cell death) of human breast cancer cells showed that flaxseed sprouts significantly reduced the growth of both of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and also increased apoptosis – these results suggest that flaxseed sprouts induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) and inhibit cancer cell growth, thereby demonstrating their anti-proliferative effects in breast cancer cells.////Prostate cancer affects one of six men during their lifetime. Dietary factors are postulated to influence the development and progression of prostate cancer. Low-fat diets and flaxseed supplementation may offer potentially protective strategies. A multisite, randomized controlled human trial tested the effects of low-fat and/or flaxseed-supplemented diets on the biology of the prostate and other biomarkers. The findings of the study suggest that flaxseed is safe and associated with biological alterations that may be protective for prostate cancer. Data also further support low-fat diets to manage serum cholesterol./// In one study, men with a precancerous prostate condition (precancerous condition is a generalized state associated with a significantly increased risk of cancer) called PIN (prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia) had lower PSA levels (a marker of prostate cancer) when they ate 30 g of flaxseed daily along with a low-fat diet. In men who had prostate cancer, 30 g of flaxseed daily and a low-fat diet did not lower PSA levels, but it did appear to lower levels of testosterone and slow down the rate of tissue growth. More studies are needed to understand how flaxseed may affect prostate cancer.///Note: A few studies have seemed to show that ALA intake was associated with an increased risk for prostate cancer. But other studies have found that flaxseed may benefit men at risk for prostate cancer. Some men worry that taking flaxseed oil might increase their chance of getting prostate cancer because of the alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) that flaxseed oil contains. Researchers are still trying to figure out the role of alpha-linolenic acid in prostate cancer. Some studies suggest that alpha-linolenic acid may increase risk or make existing prostate cancer worse, but other studies find no connection. Nevertheless, the alpha-linolenic acid in flaxseed oil doesn’t seem to be a problem. Alpha-linolenic acid from plant sources, such as flaxseed, does not seem to affect prostate cancer risk, although alpha-linolenic acid from dairy and meat sources has been linked in some studies with prostate cancer], apple [the results of an in vitro study indicate that modified Fuji apple polysaccharide (MAP) suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS) – induced migration and invasiveness of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells by targeting the LPS/ toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/ nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway; therefore, MAP has potential for the clinical prevention of CRC cell metastasis./// An in vitro study concluded that apple polyphenols (APs) could inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis (programed cell death) in metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC-M) cells in vitro. These effects may be related to the downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) expression and the activation of caspase-3 expression./// Α study that evaluated the antiproliferative effects of apple peel extract (APE) in variety of cancer cell types demonstrated that APE, obtained from organic Gala apples, imparted significant reduction in the viability of a variety of cancer cell lines. Further, the data showed a significant decrease in growth and clonogenic survival of human prostate carcinoma CWR22Rnu1 and DU145 cells and breast carcinoma Mcf-7 and Mcf-7:Her18 cells. Also, the antiproliferative effects of APE were found to be accompanied by a G0-G1 phase arrest of prostate and breast cancer cells. Furthermore, APE treatment resulted in a marked concentration-dependent decrease in the protein levels of proliferative cell nuclear antigen, a marker for proliferation. In addition, APE treatment resulted in a marked increase in maspin, a tumor suppressor protein that negatively regulates cell invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. This data suggested that apple peel extract (APE) possesses strong antiproliferative effects against cancer cells, and apple peels should not be discarded from the diet], Achillea millefolium (yarrow) [The results of an in vivo study on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats indicate that extracts of Achillea millefolium and Bauhinia forficata have antimutagenic potential and that their consumption can benefit the health of those using them as an alternative therapy.// In an in vitro study, Achillinin A (2β,3β-epoxy-1α,4β,10α-trihydroxyguai-11(13)-en-12,6α-olide, 1), a new guaianolide isolated from the flower of Achillea millefolium, exhibited potential antiproliferative activity to A549, RERF-LC-kj and QG-90 cells with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 5.8, 10 and 0.31 µM, respectively]

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anticonvulsant: see ΄΄Epilepsy// seizures//anticonvulsant΄΄

 

Antidepressant effects (see also ΄΄Antidepressant effects enhancement΄΄): Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi), blueberries, Coenzyme Q10 (a human study showed that lower CoQ10 plays a role in the pathophysiology of depression and in particular in treatment resistant depression and chronic fatigue syndrome accompanying depression, and it is suggested that depressed patients may benefit from CoQ10 supplementation), turmeric// curcumin (curcumin has shown promising efficacy in various animal models of major depression), Although essential fatty acids (EFA, they are also shown to decrease the risk of depression), alpha-linolenic acid [ALA, an omega 3 fatty acid// a study showed that ALA intake was inversely associated with depression risk// the inverse association between ALA and depression was stronger in women with low linoleic acid (LA) intake], omega – 3 fatty acids // fish oil [several studies have found that people who took omega-3 fatty acids in addition to prescription antidepressants had a greater improvement in symptoms, than those who took antidepressants alone./// The aim of a study was to determine if changes in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid status following tuna oil supplementation correlated with changes in scores of depression. The results showed that with HiDHA supplementation, erythrocyte DHA content rose from 4.1 ± 0.2 to 7.9 ± 0.4 % (mean ± SEM) of total fatty acids, but did not change in the olive oil group. The mean changes in scores of depression did not differ significantly between the two groups. However, analysis of covariance showed that in the fish oil group there was a significant correlation between the change in erythrocyte DHA and the change in scores of depression], Passiflora incarnata (Passionflower// many species have been found to contain beta – carboline harmala alkaloids, which are MAO inhibitors with anti-depressant properties), Rhodiola rosea [it may be effective for improving mood and it also may improve depression// a study concluded that the standardized extract SHR-5 shows anti-depressive potency in patients with mild to moderate depression when administered over a 6-week period// another study demonstrated that Rhodiola rosea roots have potent anti-depressant activity by inhibiting MAO A and may also find application in the control of senile dementia by their inhibition of MAO B// another study concluded that Rhodiola rosea extract could improve 5-HT (serotonin) level in hippocampus in depressive rats, and low dosage Rhodiola rosea could induce neural stem cell proliferation at hippocampus to return to normal level, repairing the injured neurons at hippocampus], Saffron [dried stigmas of the plant Crocus sativus// animal studies has shown that the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of saffron and its constituents, crocin and safranal, have antidepressant activities as revealed during forced swimming tests// a study showed that saffron was effective similar to imipramine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression and concluded that saffron may be of therapeutic benefit in the treatment of mild to moderate depression], SAMe [some studies suggests that SAMe is more effective than placebo in treating mild-to-moderate depression and is just as effective as antidepressant medications without their side affects (headaches, sleeplessness, and sexual dysfunction)// also, antidepressants tend to take 6 – 8 weeks to begin working, while SAMe’s action seems to begin more quickly// however, many of the studies have examined injectable forms of SAMe, not an oral supplement, and the quality of the studies has varied// SAMe can be beneficial and might be as effective as some prescription medications used for depression (tricyclic antidepressants TCAs)// some studies also show that taking SAMe might be helpful for people who do not have a good response to a prescription antidepressant// SAMe is superior to placebo and is as effective as tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) in alleviating depression, although some individuals may require higher doses// SAMe may have a faster onset of action than do conventional antidepressants// a study concluded that S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe) may be useful for patients who cannot tolerate tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs)], Sesame oil (lignans), Eleuthero (called wrongly by some as Siberian ΄΄ginseng΄΄), St. John’s wort [Hypericum perforatum// the available evidence suggests that the Hypericum extracts tested in the included trials are superior to placebo in patients with major depression, are similarly effective as standard antidepressants and have fewer side-effects than standard antidepressants// there is good evidence that St. John’s wort may reduce symptoms in people with mild-to-moderate, but not severe (or major), depression// in many studies it seems to work as well as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a popular type of antidepressant that doctors often prescribe first to treat depression, including fluoxetine (Prozac), citalopram (Celexa), and sertraline (Zoloft)// St. John’s wort doesn’t seem to have one of the most common side effects of antidepressants, which is loss of libido (loss of sex drive)// many studies have compared St. John's wort to Prozac, Celexa, paroxetine (Paxil), and Zoloft, and found that the herb works as well as the drug// a Cochrane review concluded that St. John’s wort extracts tested in the trials were superior to placebo, similarly effective as standard antidepressants, and had fewer side effects than standard antidepressants, however, findings were more favourable to St. John’s wort extracts in studies form German-speaking countries where these products have a long tradition and are often prescribed by physicians, while in studies from other countries St. John’s wort extracts seemed less effective// a human study concluded that Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort) extract WS 5570 was found to be safe and more effective than placebo for the treatment of mild to moderate depression// another human study concluded that the Hypericum perforatum extract (St. John’s Wort) preparation was therapeutically equivalent to fluoxetine (a SSRI antidepressant) and is therefore a rational alternative to synthetic antidepressants], Valerian (a study in rats & mice proposed that not sedative but anxiolytic and antidepressant activity, which was elaborated particularly in the special extract phytofin Valerian 368, considerably contribute to the sleep-enhancing properties of valerian), chamomile (a human study concluded that chamomile may provide clinically meaningful antidepressant activity that occurs in addition to its previously observed anxiolytic activity), chromium [one small study found that chromium picolinate improved symptoms of depression in people with atypical depression, however a larger study found that chromium did not help.// A study in mice demonstrated the antidepressant-like activity of chromium in the mouse forced swim test (FST) and indicates the major role of the AMPA receptor and participation of NMDA glutamatergic and 5-HT(1) and 5-HT(2A/C) serotonin receptors in this activity], Citicoline [CDP – Choline// INN.// The findings of a human placebo-controlled trial in a dual diagnosis sample with methamphetamine use disorders suggest that citicoline may have antidepressant properties in this population; greater treatment retention with citicoline is also noteworthy in a patient population with substance dependence], dark chocolate [In a study, healthy middle-aged participants received a dark chocolate drink mix standardized to contain 500 mg, 250 mg or 0 mg of polyphenols (placebo) in a parallel-groups design. After 30 days, the high dose of treatment significantly increased self-rated calmness and contentedness relative to placebo. The study demonstrated the positive effects of cocoa polyphenols on mood in healthy participants and provided a rationale for exploring whether cocoa polyphenols can ameliorate the symptoms associated with clinical anxiety or depression], fisetin (the findings of a study on mice indicate that the antidepressant-like effect of fisetin involves the regulation of the central serotonin and noradrenaline levels)

 

 

Antidepressant effects enhancement: Yohimbine [a study showed that addition of yohimbine potentiated the antidepressant action of fluoxetine or venlafaxine in mouse Porsolt’s forced swim test (FST), as the animals showed a decrease in the immobility period compared to the fluoxetine or venlafaxine per se (in itself) group, respectively// the study did not only demonstrated the association of alpha2-receptors in the antidepressant effect of fluoxetine or venlafaxine, but also supports its adjuvant therapy with other antidepressant drugs]

 

Antidiabetic properties: see ΄΄Blood glucose lowering agents΄΄, ΄΄Anti-glycating agents΄΄, ΄΄Diabetes mellitus complications prevention// antidiabetic properties// HbA1c lowering agents΄΄, ΄΄Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)΄΄, and ΄΄Diabetes mellitus prevention΄΄

 

Antiemetic (that prevents vomiting// see also ΄΄Nausea and vomiting΄΄): Holy basil (Tulsi)

 

Anti-fertility effects: holy basil (Tulsi) [it may have antispermatogenic (sperm blocking) and anti-fertility effects], Taraxacum officinale (the common dandelion// a study concluded that the aqueous extract of Taraxacum officinale acts as an anti-fertility agent rather than a fertility booster as prescribed by Jordanian herbalists)

 

Antifungal effects (against fungal infections; see also ΄΄Fungal skin infections΄΄): chamomile, coenzyme Q-10, Echinacea [a study mentions that taking echinacea and applying a medicated cream to the skin seems to lower the recurrence rate of vaginal yeast infection to about 16% compared to 60.5% with econazole.// A study demonstrated that hexane extracts of Echinacea variably inhibit growth of yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida shehata, C. kefyr, C. albicans, C. steatulytica and C. tropicalis under near UV irradiation (phototoxicity) and to a lower extent without irradiation (conventional antifungal activity)./// A study utilized a set of &#x223C;4,600 viable gene deletion mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify mutations that increase sensitivity to Echinacea. Follow-up analyses revealed an increase in sonication-associated cell death in the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Cryptococcus neoformans after Echinacea extract treatments. Furthermore, fluorescence microscopy showed that Echinacea-treated S. cerevisiae was significantly more prone to cell wall damage than non-treated cells],  garlic, Holy basil (Tulsi), lemon balm (in a study, a significant rate of antifungal activity was exhibited on Triˆchophyton species// in another study, essential oil from romanian lemon balm samples tested showed a high activity against Candida albicans), Mastic, Propolis, pterostilbene, Rosemary essential oil, Soybeans (they contain glyceollins, molecules belonging to the pterocarpans family, that have been found to have an antifungal activity against Aspergilus sojae, the fungal ferment used to produce soy sauce), Tannins, Wolfberry [Goji berry// a study showed that (+)-Lyoniresinol-3α-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of the root bark from Lycium chinense (Goji berry), exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from patients, and human pathogenic fungi without having any hemolytic effect on human erythrocytes (red blood cells)// in particular, the above compound induced the accumulation of intracellular trehalose on Candida albicans (a fungus) as stress response to the drug, and disrupted the dimorphic transition that forms pseudo-hyphae caused by the pathogenesis], cinnamon [in a report, the in vitro activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon verum) against fluconazole-resistant and-susceptible Candida isolates is described], Calendula officinalis (an in vitro study showed that methanol and ethanol extracts of Calendula officinalis showed excellent antifungal activity against tested strains of fungi, while comparing with Fluconazole)

 

Anti-glycating agents (that inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end products AGEs or AGEPs) [See also ΄΄Diabetes mellitus΄΄ and ΄΄Βlood glucose lowering agents΄΄]: L-Carnosine, aged garlic extract (AGE; also known as ‘kyolic’) [recent studies suggest that aged garlic extract (AGE) inhibits formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEPs) in vitro and formation of glycation-derived free radicals. S-Allylcysteine, a key component of aged garlic, is a potent antioxidant and can inhibit AGEP formation], alpha – lipoic acid (a study concluded that supplementation of cellular antioxidative defense mechanisms by extracellularly administered alpha-lipoic acid reduces advanced glycation end products albumin-induced endothelial dysfunction in vitro), Plantago asiatica [a study showed that methanol extract of Plantago asiatica (PAE) and plantamajoside had significant effects on in vitro advanced glycation end-products (AGE) formation, and the glycation inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of plantamajoside were comparable to those obtained using millimolar concentrations of the standard antiglycation agent aminoguanidine, and the antioxidant ascorbate, respectively] Acerola [In an in vitro study, two anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-alpha-O-rhamnoside (C3R) and pelargonidin-3-alpha-O-rhamnoside (P3R), and quercitrin (quercetin-3-alpha-O-rhamnoside), were isolated from acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) fruit. C3R and quercitrin revealed strong radical scavenging activity. While the inhibitory profiles of isolated polyphenols except quercitrin towards alpha-glucosidase activity were low, all polyphenols strongly inhibited advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation], turmeric/ curcumin (a study concluded that the novel pharmacological actions of curcumin on advanced glycation end products (AGEs) – stimulated chondrocytes (cartilage cells) provide new suggestions that curcumin has nutritional potential as a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory agent for treating osteoarthritis (OA)]

 

Anti-inflammatory effects (See also ΄΄Wound irritation reduction΄΄): Acai palm (berry), anthocyanins, Astragalus, blackberry [The anti-inflammatory response from topical application of solutions of the low and high molecular weight phenolic fractions (LMPF and HMPF, respectively) isolated from three blackberry cultivars (i.e., Navaho, Kiowa, and Ouachita) was assessed in the TPA mouse ear model; the results showed that all treatments significantly reduced TPA-induced irritation injury; also, mouse ear myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, an indicator of polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration, was assessed and found to be significantly reduced after topical application of indomethacin and all blackberry preparations], celery [the anti-inflammatory activities of celery extracts, some rich in flavone aglycones and others rich in flavone glycosides, were tested on the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages; the results demonstrate that deglycosylation increases absorption of dietary flavones in vivo and modulates inflammation by reducing TNF-α and NF-κB, suggesting the potential use of functional foods rich in flavones for the treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases], blueberries, Boswellia serrata// boswellic acids [pentacyclic triterpenes from the 11-keto-boswellic acid series were identified as the active principal ingredients of Boswellia resin, inhibiting the key enzyme of leukotriene biosynthesis, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO).// The results of a study showed that acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid, an established direct, nonredox and noncompetitive 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, decreased the activity of human leukocyte elastase (HLE) in vitro], Bromelain [an in vitro study concluded that the suppression of signaling pathways by bromelain’s proteolytic activity may contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity of bromelain.// A study on mice concluded that Phlogenzym (PHL) may ameliorate inflammatory process by reducing the number of CD4+ cells and by diminishing INF-gamma mRNA levels. Note: Phlogenzym contains bromelain, trypsin and rutosid trihydrate], chamomile (an in vitro study demonstrated that chamomile inhibits nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression by inhibiting RelA/p65 activation and supports the utilization of chamomile as an effective anti-inflammatory agent), tart cherries [a human study showed that the trend toward decreased inflammatory indices (CRP and NO) after cherry consumption gives evidence that compounds in cherries may inhibit inflammatory pathways.// A study in rats showed that tart cherry anthocyanins may have a beneficial role in the treatment of inflammatory pain – the antihyperalgesic effects may be related to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of anthocyanins (hyperalgesia is an increased sensitivity to pain that may be caused by damage to nociceptors or peripheral nerves)], cinnamon [a study explored the anti-inflammatory property of cinnamon metabolite sodium benzoate (NaB) in microglia and astrocytes; the results of the study highlight a novel anti-inflammatory role of cinnamon metabolite sodium benzoate (NaB) via modulation of the mevalonate pathway and p21(ras)], cranberry, turmeric// curcumin, omega – 3 fatty acids // fish oil [long-chain n–3 (omega – 3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), as found in oily fish and fish oils, decrease the production of inflammatory eicosanoids, cytokines, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the expression of adhesion molecules], fisetin (a human study concluded that the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP – ribose) polymerase (PARP) – 1 – inhibiting flavonoids fisetin and tricetin were able to attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS) – induced cytokine release from leukocytes of patients with chronic systemic inflammation, indicating a potential application as nutraceutical agents for these patient groups./// A study that investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the flavonoids flavone, fisetin and tricetin in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) – induced acute pulmonary inflammation showed that the flavonoid fisetin significantly reduced lung myeloperoxidase-levels and gene-expression of inflammatory mediators such as IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, MIP-1α and MIP-2; overall, the anti-inflammatory effects of fisetin in this in vivo model were much more pronounced as compared to the observed effects of flavone or tricetin and the anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid dexamethasone; in conclusion, flavonoids such as fisetin might be potential candidates as pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals in the treatment of pulmonary inflammatory diseases.// An in vitro study concluded that fisetin mediates antitumor and anti-inflammatory effects through modulation of NF-kappaB pathways], flavonoids, garlic// aged garlic extract (AGE; also known as ‘kyolic’), ginseng, Liquorice [licorice; the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra; Note: deglycyrrhizinated licorice (DGL) is safer//.// A study in rats concluded that both glycerrhitinic acid (GA) and the aqueous licorice extract (ALE) have anti-inflammatory activity comparable with diclofenac sodium (DS, such as Voltaren (R), a NSAID, i.e. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug); It may be recommended to add ALE to either diclofinac or famotidine (FT; a histamine H2 – receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production) for more effective anti-inflammatory or anti-ulcer formulations, respectively], holy basil (Tulsi) (studies suggest that holy basil may be a COX – 2 inhibitor, like the NSAIDs painkillers, because it has high concentration of eugenol), alpha – lipoic acid, Milk thistle// Silymarin, olive oil [oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of COX (cyclooxygenase) similar to classical NSAIDs such as ibuprofen], pectin [a study on diabetic mice showed that pectin decreased edema volume and release of myeloperoxidase// it also significantly decreased neutrophil infiltration and partially decreased immunostaining for tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF – α) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS)], phosphatidylcholine, Plantago e.g. Plantago major & Plantago lanceolata & Plantago asiatica, Polyphenols (they have inti-inflammatory properties and the molecular mechanisms for this may be the down-regulation of COX2 and iNOS through suppression of NF – kB activation), Pycnogenol, Proanthocyanidins// oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes (OPCs) e.g. proanthocyanidins isolated from blackcurrant leaves (a study supported the anti-inflammatory activity of proanthocyanidins isolated from blackcurrant that is related to an inhibition of leukocyte infiltration which can be explained at least in part by a down-regulation of endothelial adhesion molecules, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and that these compounds are capable of modulating TNF-α-induced VEGF transcription), Propolis, pterostilbene, Quercetin (a study concluded that quercetin is a potential anti-inflammatory therapeutic and preventive agent targeting the inflammatory response of macrophages), Red wine, Reishi mushroom [Lingzhi mushroom], Resveratrol, Rosemary, Royal jelly (a study suggested that royal jelly has anti-inflammatory actions through inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine production by activated macrophages), Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), SAMe, Schisandra chinensis [Wu wei zi// a study showed that the anti-inflammatory properties of schisandrin result from the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) release, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression], Senna macranthera (in a study, the hexane extract significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats in a manner similar to that of sodium diclofenac), Eleuthero (called wrongly by some as Siberian ΄΄ginseng΄΄), American skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora// baicalin is a phenolic of some Scutellaria species that has anti- inflammatoy and analgesic properties), Chinese skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis// the active ingredients of ΄΄golden root΄΄ of Scutellaria baicalensis (Huang – Qin// Chinese skullcap), a valuable traditional Chinese medicine, are polyhydroxyflavonoids, namely baicalein, oroxylin A and wogonin – Wogonin proved to be the most potent (82.9% inhibition) in its anti-inflammatory activity against carrrageenan – induced rat hind paw edema], Soybeans (soybeans contain a high level of phytic acid// phytic acid may reduce inflammation), tannins isolated from the stem bark of Myracrodruon urundeuva (a timber tree which is often used for beekeeping// a study in rats showed that tannin-enriched fraction (TEF) isolated from the stem bark of M. Urundeuva significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw edema at 3 hours (44%) and 4 hours (28%), with a dose of 10 mg//kg, i.p. TEF], Blessed thistle (it contains tannins which might help inflammation), Taraxacum officinale [the common dandelion// a few animal studies also suggest that dandelion might help fight inflammation// a study showed that Taraxacum officinale methanol extract (TOME) and Taraxacum officinale water extract (TOWE) inhibit oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through elevated de novo (from the beggining) synthesis of antioxidative enzymes and suppression of iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) expression by NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) inactivation], Valerian [in a study, the EtOAc extract of the underground parts of Valeriana officinalis showed inhibitory activity against NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells)], Vinpocetine, black raspberry (a study investigated Korean black raspberry; eight fractions were obtained from juice-pulp-seed wine via ethyl acetate extraction and silica gel chromatography; of these, the AF fraction, which exhibited the highest in vitro anti-inflammatory activity, exerted inhibitory effects on ear edema, writhing response, and vein membrane vascular permeability in mice], blackberry [an in vitro study concluded that Hull blackberry extract (HBE) has potent antioxidant, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory activities and that HBE-formulated products may have the potential for the treatment and/or prevention of cancer and/or other inflammatory diseases], Arnica (e.g. Arnica montana) [Several species in the genus Arnica have been used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory-related disorders.// Sesquiterpene lactones are considered as the main active compounds of Arnica flowers. It was shown that these natural products attack inflammatory processes at a very central point by inhibiting the transcription factors NF-kappa B and NF-AT at micromolar concentrations. Both transcription factors regulate the transcription of genes encoding for many inflammatory mediators. First clinical studies show that they can support the treatment of rheumatic diseases./// A study evaluated the effects of Arnica montana 6cH on the individual modulation of acute inflammation kinetics in rats. The results showed that animals that presented precocious oedema were less responsible to Arnica montana 6cH in relation to hemodynamic changes. Instead, rats that exhibited late oedema presented less intense oedema, lower percentage of mast cell degranulation, and increase in lymphatic vessels diameter. The data suggest an individually qualitative adjustment of inflammatory vascular events by Arnica montana 6cH.///  A study in rats showed that in the chronic model, Nystatin-induced oedema, the group treated 3 days previously with Arnica montana 6cH had reduced inflammation 6 hours after the inflammatory agent was applied. In a model based on histamine-induced increase of vascular permeability, pretreatment with Arnica montana 6cH blocked the action of histamine in increasing vascular permeability./// Note: Arnica is generally safe when used on the skin. However, using it for a long time may irritate the skin, causing eczema, peeling, blisters, or other skin conditions. Arnica should not be used on broken skin, such as leg ulcers. People should not take arnica by mouth without direct medical supervision, except in dilute form as a homeopathic remedy, because side effects may be severe], Andrographis paniculata [andrographolide (1) and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (2) are active constituents of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.), family Acanthaceae. A. paniculata extracts are reported to have antiviral, antipyretic, immunostimulant and anticancer activities. In a study, 1 and its 14-acetyl- (4) and 3,19-isopropylidenyl- (3) derivatives, as well as 2 and its 3,19-dipalmitoyl-derivative (5), were intraperitoneally tested for their analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and acute toxicity effects in animal models. The results showed that in a carrageenan-induced inflammation model, 1, 3 and 5 significantly reduced rats’ paw volume. From this study, 3 and 5 are the most interesting derivatives, showing much greater potency than their parent compounds. These could be further developed as analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agents, without any serious toxicity], Calendula officinalis [Calendula officinalis flower extract possessed significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan and dextran-induced acute paw edema. Oral administration of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight Calendula extract produced significant inhibition (50.6 and 65.9% respectively) in paw edema of animals induced by carrageenan and 41.9 and 42.4% respectively with inflammation produced by dextran. In chronic anti-inflammatory model using formalin, administration of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight Calendula extract produced an inhibition of 32.9 and 62.3% respectively compared to controls. LPS induced cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) levels in mice spleen were also found to be inhibited by extract treatment. The results showed that potent anti-inflammatory response of Calendula officinalis extract may be mediated by the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines and Cox-2 and subsequent prostaglandin synthesis], Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (the findings of an in vitro study demonstrate the anti-inflammatory and myogenic action of CLA and point to its possible application as a novel dietary supplement and therapeutic agent in inflammatory disease states, such as cachexia), dark chocolate [a human study suggests that regular consumption of small doses of dark chocolate may reduce inflammation; specifically dark chocolate consumption was inversely associated with CRP; J-shaped relationship between dark chocolate consumption and serum CRP was observed; consumers of up to 1 serving (20 g) of dark chocolate every 3 days had serum CRP concentrations that were significantly lower than non-consumers or higher consumers], devil’s claw [an in vitro study concluded thay the standardized ethanol Harpagophytum procumbens (Hp; devil’s claw) extract inhibits induction of pro-inflammatory gene expression, possibly by blocking the AP-1 pathway. This is novel evidence of a possible mechanism of action of this anti-inflammatory drug], Echinacea, piperine – black pepper [a study assessed the effects of piperine, the active phenolic component in black pepper extract, on human OA chondrocytes (cartilage cells); the study demonstrated the anti-inflammatory activity of piperine in human osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes (cartilage cells); piperine can effectively abrogate the IL-1beta -induced over-expression of inflammatory mediators; suggesting that piperine may be a potential agent in the treatment of OA], yarrow (Achillea millefolium)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anti-microbial effects (see also ΄΄Antibacterial effects΄΄, ΄΄Antifungal effects΄΄, ΄΄Antiparasitic and antiprotozoal effects΄΄ and ΄΄Antiviral effects΄΄ and  ΄΄Wound antimicrobial΄΄;΄see also ΄΄Common cold prevention/ treatment΄΄ and ΄΄Respiratory infections prevention/ treatment΄΄): Aloe Vera (topical use), anthocyanins, Apple Cider Vinegar (ACV), curcumin//turmeric, Astragalus, chamomile, cinnamon, flavonoids, garlic, goldenseal// berberine (berberine is a compound found in goldenseal// berberine extracts and decoctions have demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity against a variety of organisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans, helminths, and Chlamydia.// Note: a study showed that goldenseal root powder increased the risk for liver tumors in rats and mice. Another study showed that administration of goldenseal root powder resulted in increased incidences of non-neoplastic lesions in the liver of male and female rats and male mice. There is little information about the safety of high dosages or the long-term use of goldenseal), grape fruit, Holy basil (Tulsi), lemon balm, Plantago, polyphenols, Proanthocyanidins// oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes (OPCs), Propolis [a study on commercially available ethanolic solutions of propolis from the Croatian market showed that all products with the total flavonoids content above 1% showed antimicrobial activity against the four Gram-positive bacterial species tested (Bacillus subtilis NCTC 8236, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 12204, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 10536), and against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and the yeast-like fungus Candida albicans ATCC 10231], Reishi mushroom [Lingzhi mushroom], Rosemary essential oil (a study concluded that active compound(s) from the rosemary oil may be useful in counteracting gram-positive bacterial, fungal, and drug-resistant infections), Chinese skullcap [Scutellaria baicalensis// in a study, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (SBG) SBG ethanol extracts (SBGEEs) at 6.25 mg//mL showed limited antiviral activities against coliphage MS2 and hepatitis// also washing with SBG80%EE (12.5 mg//mL) resulted in >1 log reduction of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium, Kentucky, Senftenberg, and Enteritidis on surface-inoculated grape tomatoes], Sulforaphane & isothiocyanates (found e.g. in broccoli sprouts// consumption of broccoli sprouts has shown to be potentially effective at inhibiting Helicobacter pylori growth that is implicated with the peptic ulcer disease), Tannins (the antimicrobial activities of tannins are well documented: the growth of many fungi, yeasts, bacteria, and viruses was inhibited by tannins// a study found that tannic acid and propyl gallate, but not gallic acid, were inhibitory to foodborne bacteria, aquatic bacteria, and off-flavor-producing microorganisms), Wolfberry [Goji berry// a study showed that (+)-Lyoniresinol-3α-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of the root bark from Lycium chinense (Goji berry), exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from patients, and human pathogenic fungi without having any hemolytic effect on human erythrocytes (red blood cells)], Zinc, beta – glucans [Cereal beta-glucans have shown in vitro activity on cytokine secretion, phagocytic activity (phagocytosis is the cellular process of engulfing solid particles by the cell membrane to form an internal phagosome by phagocyts and protists) and cytotoxicity (cell toxicity) of isolated immune cells, and activation of the complement system; animal studies suggest a possible protective effect against an intestinal parasite, against bacterial infection, and a synergistic effect in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity], yarrow (Achillea millefolium) [The extracts of aerial parts of Achillea clavennae, Achillea holosericea, Achillea lingulata and Achillea millefolium (hexane:ether:methanol=1:1:1) were tested for antimicrobial activity in a disk diffusion assay against five bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enteritidis) and two fungi (Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans). Extracts of all four species possessed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. The extract of Achillea clavennae, showed the strongest activity]

 

 

Antimotility effects: See ΄΄Spasmolytic΄΄

 

 

Antimycobacterial properties (for Mycobacterium tuberculosis): bromelain [the data of an in vitro study provide a mechanism for antimycobacterial activity of stem bromelain (SBM) and provide important insights for the use of cysteine proteases as immunomodulatory agents], Plantago major, Selenium (some studies suggest that selenium supplementation, along with other nutrients, can help prevent the recurrence of tuberculosis// a study suggests that Selenium status of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is low when compared with healthy control - low concentration of serum Selenium as well as wasting was noticed significantly in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients with HIV infection, than non HIV subjects, hence, these cases require nutritional supplements containing selenium], Liquorice [licorice; the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra; Note: deglycyrrhizinated licorice (DGL) is safer]

Antioxidant effects on patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM): almonds [the results of a human study suggested that incorporation of almonds into a healthy diet could ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)] 

Antioxidant effects on the elderly (old people): Coenzyme Q10 (a human study showed that mediterranean diet + Coenzyme Q10 diet improves oxidative DNA damage in elderly subjects and reduces processes of cellular oxidation – these results suggest a starting point for the prevention of oxidative processes associated with aging)

 

Antioxidant properties (see also ΄΄High ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity substances΄΄,΄΄Antioxidant effects on patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM)΄΄ and ΄΄Antioxidant effects on the elderly΄΄): Acai palm (berry), Astragalus, anthocyanins spinach (in a study it had the highest antioxidant capacity in the TEAC and FRAP assays), berries (such as blackberry, redcurrant and raspberry), coffee (in a study it had the highest antioxidant capacity in the TEAC assays), soybean oil (in a study it had the highest antioxidant capacity), garlic (in a study it had the highest antioxidant activity against peroxyl radicals), Kale (in a study it had the highest antioxidant activity against hydroxyl radicals), green and black teas (in a study they had much higher antioxidant activities against peroxyl radicals than tested vegetables// in the study the tea also showed a prooxidant activity in the presence of Cu2+), Acerola, wild bilberry & blueberry extracts (in a study, they both possessed the highest ORAC values), strawberry (in a study it had the highest ORAC activity on the basis of the wet and dry weight of the fruits// another study also showed that on the basis of the dry weight of fruit, strawberries had the highest ORAC// in another study,the ORAC values of strawberry powder and GSPE were higher than cranberry, elderberry or raspberry seed, but significantly lower than the other samples studied), grape juice (in a study it had the highest ORAC activity among the commercial fruit juices), Andrographis paniculata [in a study in rats the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of A. paniculata leaves was evident by decreased tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increased SOD levels], black currant, astaxanthin [a study that investigated the action of dietary astaxanthin in modulating immune response, oxidative status and inflammation in young healthy adult female human subjects concluded that dietary astaxanthin decreases a DNA damage biomarker and acute phase protein, and enhances immune response in young healthy females.// The results of a human study suggest that astaxanthin supplementation results in improved erythrocyte antioxidant status and decreased PLOOH levels, which may contribute to the prevention of dementia], bilberry and black currant (in a study they possessed almost equal antiradical activities), chokeberry (it possess strong antioxidant activity), elderberry, blueberries (they are one of the richest sources of antioxidant phytonutrients), cv. Jewel black raspberry, red raspberries and blackberries (a study showed that, on the basis of wet weight of fruit, they may be the richest source for antioxidants), artichoke, Astragalus membranaceus, beta-carotene, L-Carnosine, celery (a study on rats concluded to the harmful effects of dichlorvos (DIC) during the exposure and the protective role of flavonoids extracts from celery in minimizing these effects), tart cherries (a study in rats showed that the rats that received cherries had higher antioxidant capacity, indicating lower oxidative stress in their bodies), chromium, cinnamon [a study concluded that cinnamon has a marked antioxidant potential and may be beneficial in alleviating the complications of many illnesses related to oxidative stress in humans.// An in vitro study indicated that the ethanol extract of cinnamon may be a new potential resource of natural antioxidant and anticholinesterase compounds], Coenzyme Q10 (a human study showed that mediterranean diet + Coenzyme Q10 diet improves oxidative DNA damage in elderly subjects and reduces processes of cellular oxidation – these results suggest a starting point for the prevention of oxidative processes associated with aging), Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid (from coffee) (the results of a study on rats show the physiological relevance of caffeic acid and its antioxidant action in vivo, through both a direct contribution to the antioxidant defense system and a sparing effect on alpha – tocopherol), Concord grape (Concord grape’s flavonoids are potent antioxidants that may protect against oxidative stress and reduce the risk of free radical damage and chronic diseases), Cranberries, dark chocolate, (contains the anti-oxidant flavonoid: epicatechin), fisetin, flavonoids, garlic// aged garlic extract (AGE – also known as ‘Kyolic’; AGE exerts antioxidant action by scavenging ROS (reactive oxygen species), enhancing the cellular antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and increasing glutathione in the cells), ginseng, grape fruit, holy basil (Tulsi), Kale [in a study, a concentration-dependent antioxidant capacity against DPPH, nitric oxide (NO), and superoxide radicals was observed for kale seeds], L- Carnitine, alpha – lipoic acid, lycopene, melatonin, Milk thistle// Silymarin, Plantago major, polyphenols, Pycnogenol, Proanthocyanidins// oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes (OPCs), pterostilbene, pterostilbene, Quercetin, Red wine, Reishi mushroom [Lingzhi mushroom], Resveratrol, lavender and rosemary essential oils [a study concluded that lavender and rosemary enhance free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) and decrease the stress hormone cortisole, protecting the body from oxidative stress], Royal jelly, Saffron [dried stigmas of the plant Crocus sativus) including Crocus sativus (saffron) grown in Crocos, Kozani (Greece], Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), Schisandra chinensis (Wu wei zi), Sea – backthorn, Selenium (selenium is incorporated into proteins to make selenoproteins, which are important antioxidant enzymes// the antioxidant properties of selenoproteins help prevent cellular damage from free radicals), vitamin A, C and E, Senna macranthera, Sesame oil (the highly antioxidative activity of sesame oil was clarified and found to involve newly discovered lignans), Chinese skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis), Spirulina (it is a type of blue-green algae that is rich in protein, vitamins, minerals, and carotenoids, antioxidants that can help protect cells from damage), Tannins, Taraxacum officinale [the common dandelion// a study showed that the dandelion flower extract (DFE) possessed marked antioxidant activity in both biological and chemical models – the efficacy of DFE in inhibiting both reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide were attributed to its phenolic content], Wheatgrass, Zinc, chamomile [an in vitro study showed that RAW 264.7 murine macrophages treated with chamomile were protected from cell death caused by H(2)O(2) (hydrogen peroxide)], chlorella, Cat’s claw, Echinacea, piperine – black pepper [the data of a study on mice indicate that supplementation with black pepper or the active principle of black pepper, piperine, can reduce high-fat diet induced oxidative stress to the cells], almonds, apple [the results of an in vitro study show that through its antioxidant properties, apple juice can protect hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) –induced cellular injury and may help reduce its carcinogenic potential]

 

 

Anti-parasitic (against parasites) & antiprotozoal (against protozoa) effects (see also ΄΄Malaria prevention΄΄): Chicory (it may help in treating intestinal worms on sheep), garlic [large quantities of fresh, raw garlic may have antiparasitic properties against the roundworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, which is the most common type of intestinal parasite// also a study concluded that oral administration of crude garlic ameliorated the adverse impacts of hepatic (liver) coccidiosis (a parasitic disease of the intestinal tract of animals, caused by coccidian protozoa) on rabbits when used as a prophylactic, but garlic was less effective as a therapeutic], goldenseal// berberine (a compound found in goldenseal// it may help on intestinal parasite infections. Note: a study showed that goldenseal root powder increased the risk for liver tumors in rats and mice. Another study showed that administration of goldenseal root powder resulted in increased incidences of non-neoplastic lesions in the liver of male and female rats and male mice. There is little information about the safety of high dosages or the long-term use of goldenseal), Tannins, beta – glucans, Echinacea (an in vitro study concluded that various Echinacea extracts can inhibit the proliferation of the parasites Leishmania donovani, Leishmania major, and Trypanosoma brucei, and at least one can reverse the pro-inflammatory activity of Leishmania donovani), feverfew (in a study, activity against epimastigote forms was observed for crude extracts, fractions and parthenolide, and a progressive increase in the antitrypanosomal (against the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi) effect was observed in the course of the purification process), garlic [a study concluded that oral (by mouth) administration of crude garlic ameliorated the adverse impacts of hepatic (liver) coccidiosis (a parasitic disease of the intestinal tract of animals, caused by coccidian protozoa) on rabbits when used as a prophylactic, but garlic was less effective as a therapeutic./// Another study that tested allicin on erythrocytic stages of malaria found that a 4 day regimen of allicin, a cysteine protease inhibitor found in garlic extracts, administered either orally or intravenously, significantly decreased parasitemias (the presence of parasites in the blood) and increased the survival of infected mice by 10 days]

 

Antiplatelet effects (see also ΄΄Platelet aggregation inhibitory effects΄΄): N-acetylcysteine [NAC// a study concluded that NAC might be an effective antiplatelet agent in conditions where increased oxidative stress contributes to heightened risk of thrombosis but only if the intra-platelet machinery to convert it to glutathione (GSH) is functional], omega – 3 fatty acids // fish oil [omega-3 fatty acids decrease platelet aggregation, resulting in a modest prolongation of bleeding times (reviewed by Knapp)// some evidence indicates that fish oil supplementation may enhance fibrinolysis// a recent study reported that coronary patients taking 5.1 grams//day of omega-3 fatty acids for 6 months experienced a reduction in von Willebrand factor (128% versus 147% for controls) and thrombomodulin (25 versus 33 ng//mL)], rapeseed oil, food-grade canola oil (contains both omega - 3 and omega -6 fatty acids in a ratio of 1:2), resveratrol, bark of Yucca schidigera, seeds of grape and berries of chokeberry (an in vitro study concluded that the tested extracts due to their anti-platelet effects may play an important role as components of human diet in prevention of cardiovascular or inflammatory diseases, where blood platelets are involved), boswellia/ boswellic acid (a study on rats demonstrated antioxidant and antithrombotic anticoagulant activities of water and hydroalcoholic extracts of Boswellia serrata's gum resin; the authors suggest that Boswellia serrata (BS) –gum resin as a good source for lead/therapeutic compounds possessing antioxidant, antiplatelet and anticoagulant activities), bromelain (a study showed that bromelain therapy leaded to formation of platelets with increased resistance to aggregation), glucosamine & celadrin [a in vitro study that investigated the effects of glucosamine (a dietary supplement used for knee osteoarthritis) and celadrin (cetylated fatty acids used as topical cream also for osteoarthritis) on platelet function concluded that glucosamine and celadrin may inhibit platelet aggregation in some individuals via aspirin-like effects as well as inhibition of ADP receptor P2Y1, but not P2Y12]

 

 

Antipyretic: See ΄΄Fever΄΄

 

 

Αntiseptic: Plantago asiatica, Turmeric// curcumin, Goldenseal (Note: a study showed that goldenseal root powder increased the risk for liver tumors in rats and mice. Another study showed that administration of goldenseal root powder resulted in increased incidences of non-neoplastic lesions in the liver of male and female rats and male mice. There is little information about the safety of high dosages or the long-term use of goldenseal)

 

Antispasmodic: see ΄΄Spasmolytic΄΄

 

Antithrombotic effects (see also ΄΄Antiplatelet effects΄΄ and ΄΄Platelet aggregation inhibitory effects΄΄): bromelain (a study showed that bromelain, orally, inhibited the thrombus formation in a time dependent manner.// Another study showed that bromelain therapy leaded to formation of platelets with increased resistance to aggregation), Extra – Virgin olive oil [a study concluded that the major effect of hydroxytyrosol (HT)-rich phenolic extract from olive mill wastewaters accounts for an anti-aggregating platelet action, leading to a possible prevention of thrombotic and microthrombotic processes// another study showed that animals fed the olive oil enriched diet showed a significant delay in the thrombotic occlusion of the ΄΄aortic loop΄΄, a lower incidence of venous thrombosis (57% vs 86%) and a prolonged bleeding time (BT), in comparison with the control group - they also had lower plasma fibrinogen concentrations], feverfew, Proanthocyanidins// oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes (OPCs), Red clover isoflavones, Red wine (alcohol or some substances found in alcoholic beverages may prevent platelets in the blood from sticking together, reducing the clot formation and reduce the risk of heart attack or stroke), Resveratrol [a study demonstrated for the first time that resveratrol simultaneously inhibits platelet aggregation and stimulates platelet apoptosis (programmed cell death). Stimulation of platelet apoptosis by resveratrol may represent the increased therapeutic potential for patients suffering from thrombotic conditions or thrombocytosis (high platelet counts in the blood) to promote platelet destruction and thus prevent pathological clotting], Royal jelly [a study suggested that lyophilized royal jelly can be used in preventing and treatment of hyperlipidemia and improving highly-coagulant status of blood], Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen// it can affect hemostasis in several ways, including inhibition of platelet aggregation, interference with the extrinsic blood coagulation, antithrombin III-like activity, and promotion of fibrinolytic activity)// animal and human studies support the use of Salvia miltiorrhiza for circulatory disorders because it is known to decrease the blood’s ability to clot by limiting the platelet accumulation and also by decreasing the production of fibrin - both these effects help to improve blood circulation), Sea – backthorn [Hippophae rhamnoides// in a laboratory animal study, the flavonoids of sea buckthorn were shown to reduce the production of pathogenic thromboses (blood clots)// another study showed that total flavones of Hippophae Rhamnoides (TFH) prevented in vivo thrombogenesis (clot development), probably due to inhibition of platelet aggregation, and suggest a possible clinical approach for the prevention of thrombosis], Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry) and seeds of Vitis vinifera (common grape vine) (in a study thrombin was incubated with polyphenol-rich extracts from berries of Aronia melanocarpa or seeds of Vitis vinifera and with polyphenols; the in vitro experiments showed that both extracts in all used concentrations inhibited proteolytic activity of thrombin observed as inhibition of thrombin-induced fibrinogen polymerization, stabilized fibrin formation, and platelet aggregation; moreover, thrombin amidolytic activity was inhibited by polyphenols belonging to the flavonoid class – in conclusion, the results presented in this study indicate that polyphenol-rich extracts from berries of Aronia melanocarpa or seeds of Vitis vinifera may become promising dietary supplements in the prevention of thrombotic states), boswellia/ boswellic acid (a study on rats demonstrated antioxidant and antithrombotic anticoagulant activities of water and hydroalcoholic extracts of Boswellia serrata's gum resin; the authors suggest that Boswellia serrata (BS) –gum resin as a good source for lead/therapeutic compounds possessing antioxidant, antiplatelet and anticoagulant activities), astaxanthin [a study in which the effect of a proprietary astaxanthin prodrug (CDX-085) on thrombus formation was investigated using a mouse model of arterial thrombosis concluded that observations of increased nitric oxide (NO) and decreased peroxynitrite (ONOO-) levels in endothelial cells and platelets support a potential mechanism of action for astaxanthin (CDX-085 active drug) – these studies support the potential of CDX-085 and its metabolite astaxanthin in the treatment or prevention of thrombotic cardiovascular complications]

 

Anti-tumor properties: see ΄΄Anti-cancer// antineoplastic// anti – proliferative// anti-apoptotic// anti- mutagenic // anti-tumor properties΄΄

 

Antiviral effects (see also ΄΄Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection΄΄, ΄΄HIV virus// AIDS΄΄, ΄΄Common cold treatment΄΄,΄΄Common cold prevention΄΄, ΄΄Influenza΄΄, ΄΄Influenza infection prevention΄΄ and ΄΄Dengue fever΄΄): Astragalus, beta glucans// (1-->3)-beta-D-Glucans, bromelain, chamomile, cinnamon [in a study on 69 plant species, 16 were effective against HIV-1 and 4 were against both HIV-1 and HIV-2; the most effective extracts against HIV-1 and HIV-2 are respectively Cinnamomum cassia (bark) and Cardiospermum helicacabum (shoot + fruit).// Another study in which eugenol (a chemical component of cinnamon essential oil, found mostly in the leaves) was tested for antiviral activity against HSV-1 (human herpes virus type 1) and HSV-2 (human herpes virus type 2) viruses showed that in vitro the replication of these viruses was inhibited in the presence of this compound;  also topical application of eugenol delayed the development of herpesvirus induced keratitis (inflammation of the cornea, the front part of the eye) in the mouse model], coenzyme, Q-10, cranberry (cranberry seems to fight some viruses in test tubes), turmeric// curcumin [a study on curcumin investigated the bioconjugates, viz. di-O-tryptophanylphenylalanine curcumin (2), di-O-decanoyl curcumin (3), di-O-pamitoyl curcumin (4), di-O-bis-(gamma,gamma)folyl curcumin (6), C(4)-ethyl-O-gamma-folyl curcumin (8) and 4-O-ethyl-O-gamma-folyl curcumin (10); the conjugates 2, 3, 6, 8 and 10 were screened for their antiviral activities against HSV, VSV, FIPV, PIV-3, RSV and FHV and the molecules 2 and 3 have shown good results with EC(50) 0.011 microM and 0.029 microM against VSV and FIPV/FHV, respectively], garlic [the results of an vitro study indicate that the Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV; CMV) IE72 deletion mutant strain affects the transcription of the virus downstream gene, allitridin (from garlic) inhibits HCMV infection in vitro, and that the IE genes may be the key target of allitridin in its action against HCMV], goldenseal// berberine (a compound found in goldenseal. The results of a study suggest that berberine may indeed be useful for the treatment of infections with influenza A. // Note: a study showed that goldenseal root powder increased the risk for liver tumors in rats and mice. Another study showed that administration of goldenseal root powder resulted in increased incidences of non-neoplastic lesions in the liver of male and female rats and male mice. There is little information about the safety of high dosages or the long-term use of goldenseal), lemon balm (a study concluded that lemon balm oil might be suitable for topical treatment of herpetic infections), Melatonin, Plantago major, polyphenols, pomegranate, Proanthocyanidins// oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes (OPCs), Propolis, Reishi mushroom [Lingzhi mushroom], Eleuthero (called wrongly by some as Siberian ΄΄ginseng΄΄) [The results of an in vitro study demonstrated that the Eleutherococcus senticosus (Eleuthero) extract inhibited the replication of all RNA viruses studied so far; this antiviral activity remained stable under the conditions used for drug preparation and storage.// In a study, a  liquid extract from Eleutherococcus senticosus (Eleuthero) roots inhibited the productive replication of human rhinovirus (HRV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A virus in cell cultures infected with these viruses, all of which belong to the RNA type viruses], Chinese skullcap [Scutellaria baicalensis// in a study, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (SBG) SBG ethanol extracts (SBGEEs) at 6.25 mg//mL showed limited antiviral activities against coliphage MS2 and hepatitis], Spirulina [test tube studies suggest that spirulina has activity against herpes, influenza, and HIV// human studies are needed// a study presented the antiviral activity found in a hot water extract (HWE) of a commercial preparation of Spirulina maxima: the HWE inhibited the infection for: herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), pseudorabies virus (PRV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and HSV-1, and for adenovirus the inhibition was less than 20% – the highest antiviral activity was detected in the methanol-water 3:1, which suggests that the antiviral activity is probably due to highly polar compounds// another study showed that a novel sulfated polysaccharide named calcium spirulan (isolated from a bioactivity-directed fractionation of a hot H2O extract from a blue-green alga Spirulina platensis) inhibited the replication of several enveloped viruses, including Herpes simplex virus type 1, human cytomegalovirus, measles virus, mumps virus, influenza A virus, and HIV-1], Tannins [when incubated with red grape juice and red wines with a high content of condensed tannins, the poliovirus, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and various enteric viruses are inactivated], Zinc [zinc appears to lessen symptoms of the rhinovirus (common cold), but researchers can’t yet explain exactly how this works// also, there is some evidence that zinc has some antiviral activity against the herpes virus], black raspberry [the data of a study provides great promise for the utilization of black raspberry (BRB) in the prevention of foodborne viral outbreaks], blackberry [a study concluded that blackberry extract inhibited the early stages of HSV-1 replication and had potent virucidal (virus killing) activity; these properties suggest that this natural fruit extract could provide advantage as a topical prophylactic/therapeutic agent for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV – 1) infections], Liquorice [licorice; the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra; Note: deglycyrrhizinated licorice (DGL) is safer// A study in mice concluded that glycyrrhizin (GR), an active component of licorice roots, may protect mice exposed to a lethal amount of influenza virus through the stimulation of IFN-gamma production by T cells, because T cells have been shown to be producer cells of IFN-gamma stimulated with the compound], Echinacea (a study suggests that echinacea extract exerted an antiviral action on the development of recurrent cold sores triggered by the herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1, when supplied prior to infection), fisetin and rutin [an in vitro study suggested that fisetin and rutin inhibit the replication of Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71)]

 

Anxiety (see also ΄΄Insomia΄΄, ΄΄Menopausal anxiety΄΄, ΄΄Stress related fatigue΄΄, ΄΄Reducing anxiety before surgery΄΄, ΄΄Adjustment disorder with anxious mood΄΄, ΄΄Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)΄΄ and ΄΄Somatization disorder΄΄): chamomile [the results of a human study suggest that chamomile may have modest anxiolytic activity in patients with mild to moderate generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).// The preliminary findings of a long-term, randomized, placebo-substitution study of chamomile for the prevention of recurrent Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)  are consistent with the authors’ previous RCT (randomized controlled trial) finding that over 50% of subjects with moderate or severe GAD symptoms respond to chamomile – the 1 500 mg dose of chamomile oral extract appears to be safe], ginger, hawthorn (in a study, amongst its cardiovascular benefits, subjects who were assigned to the hawthorn extract showed a trend towards a reduction in anxiety, compared with the other groups), kava – kava [some clinical studies have found kava – kava to be effective in treating symptoms associated with anxiety// Note: there are considerations that kava - kava may cause liver toxicity// the majority of evidence shows that certain kava extracts (extracts standardized to 70% kavalactones) can lower anxiety and might work as well as prescription anti-anxiety medications called low-dose benzodiazepines// it may also treat anxiety in women going through menopause// a Cochrane review concluded that, compared with placebo, kava extract might be an effective symptomatic treatment for anxiety although, at present, the size of the effect seems to be small// a study concluded to the anxiolytic (anxiety relieving) efficacy and good tolerance of kava-kava special extract WS1490 and showed that a further symptom reduction is possible after a change-over from benzodiazepine treatment// another study concluded that the special extract of kava-kava WS 1490 is a treatment alternative to tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and benzodiazepines in anxiety disorders, with proven long-term efficacy and none of the tolerance problems associated with tricyclics antidepressants and benzodiazepines// a meta-analysis concluded that kava extract is superior to placebo as a symptomatic treatment for anxiety], lemon balm [lemon balm combined with other calming herbs (such as valerian, hops, and chamomile) may help reduce anxiety and promote sleep// few studies have examined lemon balm by itself, except for topical use// a study showed that the 600 mg dose of Melissa ameliorated the negative mood effects of the Defined Intensity Stressor Simulation (DISS), with significantly increased self-ratings of calmness and reduced self-ratings of alertness// another study concluded that a combination of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) and Valeriana officinalis (Valerian) possesses anxiolytic properties that deserve further investigation], Passiflora incarnata [Passionflower// there is some evidence that passionflower can reduce symptoms of anxiety, sometimes as effectively as some prescription medications// a study concluded that Passiflora extract is an effective drug for the management of generalized anxiety disorder, and the low incidence of impairment of job performance with Passiflora extract compared to oxazepam (a benzodiazepine anxiolytic) is an advantage// a recent study found that patients who were given passionflower before surgery had less anxiety, but recovered from anesthesia just as quickly, than those given placebo// chrysin, a Passiflora extract, may have anxiolytic properties similar to midazolam (a benzodiazepine sedative), but to a lesser magnitude at the 2 mg//kg dose used in a study], phosphatidylserine [a study showed that Treatment with soy lecithin phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine complex (PAS) resulted in a pronounced blunting of both serum ACTH and cortisol, and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST)// these data provide initial evidence for a selective stress dampening effect of PAS on the pituitary-adrenal axis, suggesting the potential of PAS in the treatment of stress related disorders], Rhodiola rosea [it may be effective for improving mood and it also may improve depression// a study demonstrated a significant improvement in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms with Rhodiola rosea, with a reduction in Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS) scores similar to that found in clinical trials], Rosemary essential oil [a study suggests that rosemary, combined with other aromatic (pleasant-smelling) oils, may help reduce anxiety. However, in another study, people who inhaled rosemary said they felt more anxious, than those who inhaled lavender and those who did not inhale a scent./// Note from the author: essential oils should not be ingested], American skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora// a number of the flavones found in S. lateriflora have been reported to selectively bind with high affinity to central benzodiazepine receptor sites, something that may explain the fact thet these flavones exert anxiolytic effects in rats// a study demonstrated noteworthy anxiolytic effects// another study in rats showed significant increases in the number of entries into the center of an ΄΄open-field arena΄΄, number of unprotected head dips, number of entries and the length of time spent on the open arms of the Elevated Plus-Maze, and identified the flavonoid, baicalin and its aglycone baicalein, as well as the amino acids GABA and glutamine – these compounds may play a role in anxiolytic activity since baicalin and baicalein are known to bind to the benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor and since GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter), Chinese skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis) (Chinese skullcap contains wogonin, a flavone which was found in one study to have anxiolytic properties in mice at doses of 7.5 to 30 mg//kg, without exhibiting the sedative and muscle-relaxing properties of benzodiazepines), Valerian [valerian is used for insomnia and other disorders as an alternative to benzodiazepines (that are also sedative and anxiolytic), and as a sedative for nervous tension, stress, sleeping disorders, restlessness, anxiety and as a muscle relaxant// a human study suggested that the valepotriates (valerian extract) may have a potential anxiolytic effect on the psychic symptoms of anxiety// another study in rats concluded that Valeriana officinalis as a potential alternative to the traditional anxiolytics as measured by the elevated plus maze// another study in rats & mice proposed that not sedative but anxiolytic and antidepressant activity, which was elaborated particularly in the special extract phytofin Valerian 368, considerably contribute to the sleep enhancing properties of valerian], chromium [a study in rats investigated the effects of chromium picolinate (CrP) on elevated plus maze and spontaneous alternation behavior paradigm as a measure of anxiety and memory, respectively; the results showed that CrP significantly increased percentage preference to open arm in elevated plus maze in diabetic and normal rats – the possible anxiolytic effect of CrP might be related to its effect on serotonergic transmission], dark chocolate [In a study, healthy middle-aged participants received a dark chocolate drink mix standardized to contain 500 mg, 250 mg or 0 mg of polyphenols (placebo) in a parallel-groups design. After 30 days, the high dose of treatment significantly increased self-rated calmness and contentedness relative to placebo. The study demonstrated the positive effects of cocoa polyphenols on mood in healthy participants and provided a rationale for exploring whether cocoa polyphenols can ameliorate the symptoms associated with clinical anxiety or depression], ginkgo biloba [People with generalized anxiety disorder and adjustment disorder who took a specific extract of ginkgo had fewer anxiety symptoms than those who took placebo./// Preliminary clinical research shows that a specific ginkgo extract (EGb 761, Tanakan) can reduce symptoms of anxiety in adults with generalized anxiety disorder or adjustment disorder with anxious mood], damiana (Turnera diffusa) [Turnera aphrodisiaca (a variety of Turnera diffusa) Ward (Turneraceae) has been traditionally used for the treatment of anxiety neurosis, and as an aphrodisiac. Mother tinctures (85% ethanol extracts) of T. aphrodisiaca have also been used for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. Ina study, T. aphrodisiaca mother tinctures formulated by three reputed manufacturers of homoeopathic medicines (NLK, DWSG and SBL) were evaluated for their anxiolytic activity. Mother tinctures of T. aphrodisiaca available in the market, have significant anxiolytic activity. Amongst the three mother tinctures of T. aphrodisiaca analyzed, the dry residue of NLK possesses the highest amount of anxiolytic constituent(s)], Achillea millefolium (yarrow) [the results of a study in mice indicate that the orally (by mouth) administered hydroalcoholic extract of Achillea millefolium L. exerted anxiolytic-like effects that likely were not mediated by GABA(A)/benzodiazepine (BDZ) neurotransmission and did not present tolerance after short-term, repeated administration]

 

 

Anxiolytic (antianxiety) properties: see ΄΄Anxiety΄΄

 

Aortic aneurysm: see ΄΄Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)΄΄

 

Aphrodisiac (that increases sexual desire (libido)): damiana (Turnera diffusa) [Turnera diffusa has been used in folk medicine by its aphrodisiac and tranquilizing properties. A study experimentally showed the aphrodisiac effect of a chemically characterized aqueous extract of Turnera diffusa in male rats. In another study the authors investigated the mechanism of action underlying such effects the finding support the notion that pro-sexual effect of the aqueous extract of Turnera diffusa in rats involves the participation of NO (nitric oxide) pathway, mainly at central level. The anxiolytic-like effect of Turnera diffusa is an advantage to its use for improving sexual performance./// The results of a study that investigated whether Turnera diffusa recovers sexual behavior in sexually exhausted (SExh) male rats support the use of Turnera diffusa as an aphrodisiac in traditional medicine and suggest possible therapeutic properties of Turnera diffusa on sexual dysfunction; the flavonoids present in active extract may participate in its pro-sexual effect, which is analogous to those produced by yohimbine, suggesting a shared mechanism of action./// A study that aimed to investigate the anti-aromatse activity and the estrogenic activity of the constituents isolated from Turnera diffusa concluded that the extract of Turnera diffusa and two isolated compounds pinocembrin and acacetin could significantly suppress aromatase activity. Moreover, apigenin 7-glucoside, Z-echinacin and pinocembrin showed estrogenic activity]

 

 

 

 

Aphthous ulcers: see ΄΄Canker sores΄΄

 

Appetite stimulants: Taraxacum officinale (the common dandelion) root & leaves

 

 

 

ARDS (Acute respiratory distress syndrome): N-acetylcysteine (NAC// a study documented that N-acetylcysteine acts as an anticoagulant and perhaps decreases pulmonary fibrin uptake during ARDS, and concluded that N-acetylcysteine might be of benefit in ARDS]

 

Arrhythmias prevention (see also ΄΄Arrhythmias induced by reperfussion΄΄, ΄΄Arrhythmias induced by bupivacaine// arrhythmias induced by local anaesthetics on subjects with secondary carnitine deficiency΄΄): berberine (a compound found in goldenseal// a study found that it has positive inotropic, negative chronotropic, antiarrhythmic, and vasodilator properties.// Note: a study showed that goldenseal root powder increased the risk for liver tumors in rats and mice. Another study showed that administration of goldenseal root powder resulted in increased incidences of non-neoplastic lesions in the liver of male and female rats and male mice. There is little information about the safety of high dosages or the long-term use of goldenseal), L- Carnitine, melatonin, omega – 3 fatty acids // fish oil [there is evidence that omega-3 fatty acids (including α-linolenic acid) may reduce risk for sudden cardiac death// EPA and DHA also have been shown to reduce resting heart rate and increase left ventricular filling capacity// animal experiments and cell culture studies have shown that fish oil has potent antiarrhythmic effects// also eating tuna or baked or broiled fish providing omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil) one or more times per week seems to reduce the risk of atrial fibrillation in patients aged 65 or older compared to consuming fish once per month or less]

 

Arrhythmias induced by bupivacaine// arrhythmias induced by local anaesthetics on subjects with secondary carnitine deficiency: Acetylcarnitine (acetyl – L – carnitine, ALC or ALCAR)

 

Arrhythmias induced by reperfussion: Proanthocyanidins// oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes (OPCs)// Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) [in isolated rat hearts grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) had been proved to reduce the incidence of reperfusion-induced VF and VT// the results of a study showed that GSPE can significantly reduce the incidence of VT and VF induced by reperfusion in vivo]

 

Arterial compliance: see ΄΄Attenuation of the reduction on arterial compliance΄΄

 

Arteriosclerosis: see ΄΄Atherosclerosis// atheromatosis prevention΄΄

 

Arthritis (see also ΄΄Osteoarthritis (ΟΑ)΄΄,΄΄Rheumatoid arthritis (RΑ)΄΄ and ΄΄General rheumatic disorders΄΄): beta – glucans// carboxymethyl (1,3)-beta-D-glucan (CMG) [a study in rats concluded that the radical-scavenging properties of carboxymethyl (1,3)-beta-D-glucan (CMG) can be responsible for its antioxidant activity in the adjuvant arthritis (AA) model, suggesting possible application of the yeast glucan derivatives in the treatment of arthritis], Bromelain, feverfew, ginger, green tea (it may benefit arthritis by reducing inflammation and slowing cartilage breakdown// EGCG, the predominant green tea polyphenol which mimic its effects, inhibits enzyme activities and signal transduction pathways that play important roles in inflammation and joint destruction in arthritis), Resveratrol (it has been investigated for its anti – inflammatory properties and for treating inflammatory arthritis), Hydrolyzed collagen [a human study concluded that BioCell Collagen (BCC), a low molecular weight dietary supplement consisting of hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage extract, was well tolerated and found to be effective in managing osteoarthritis (OA) – associated symptoms over the study period, thereby improving patient’s activities of daily living; thus, BCC can be considered a potential complement to current OA therapies.// Another human study concluded that the novel glycosylated undenatured type II collagen material (UC-II) may serve as a novel therapeutic tool in joint inflammatory conditions and symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA)], cherry [a study in rats concluded that cyanidin from cherries could protect against the paws swelling in adjuvant induced arthritis (AA) in rats, and alleviate the inflammatory reaction in the joint, and the mechanism might be via the increase activity of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) that improve the total antioxidative capacity and scavenge the free radicals, perhaps as a result of that the levels of the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in paw tissues and TNF-alpha contents in serum were decreased – the results suggest that the cyanidin from cherries could be one of the potential candidates for the alleviation of arthritis.// Another study on rats concluded that anthocyanins from cherries have potential anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects on adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA)], celadrin [cetylated fatty acids; topical use as a joint cream; A human study showed that one week of treatment with a topical cream consisting of cetylated fatty acids (Celadrin) and menthol was similarly effective for reducing pain and improving functional performance in individuals with arthritis of the knee, elbow, and wrist; these data support the use of a topical cream consisting of cetylated fatty acids (with or without menthol) for enhancing the potential for exercise training in this population.// Another human study concluded that compared to placebo, CFA (cetylated fatty acids; Celadrin) provides an improvement in knee range of motion and overall function in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee; thus CFA may be an alternative to the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSDAIDs) for the treatment of OA]

 

 

 

Asthenia (weakness): Schisandra chinensis (Wu wei zi)

 

Asthma: Acai palm (berry), Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi; a study in rats concluded that various fractions derived from Bacopa monniera possess broncho-vasodilatory activity, which is attributed mainly to inhibition of calcium ions), beta-carotene (the results of a study indicate that a daily dose of the unicellular alga Dunaliella bardawil beta-carotene exerts a protective effect against exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in some patients most probably through in vivo antioxidative effect], Boswellia serrata// boswellic acids (in one double-blind, placebo-controlled study, people who took boswellia had fewer attacks and improved lung function on asthma – Boswellia may help leukotreine modifiers work better.// In a human study on asthmatics 70% of patients were treated with a preparation of gum resin showed improvement of disease as evident by disappearance of physical symptoms and signs such as dyspnoea, rhonchi, number of attacks, increase in FEV subset1, FVC and PEFR, as well as decrease in eosinophilic count and ESR – the study concluded that there is definite role of gum resin of Boswellia serrata in the treatment of bronchial asthma), caffeine (e.g. from coffee, tea, cola drinks, cocoa & chocolate// caffeine is a drug that is very similar to theophylline, a bronchodilator drug for asthma// a Cochrane review concluded that even small amounts of caffeine can improve lung function for up to four hours, however caffeine is needed in such large amounts that the drug’s adverse effects would become a problem, so more research is needed), ivy leaf extract (a review concluded that ivy leaf extract preparations have effects with respect to an improvement of respiratory functions of children with chronic bronchial asthma), Ligusticum wallichii [Chuanxiong// a study concluded that Ligusticum wallichii Mixture (LWM) could relax tracheal smooth muscle, improve pulmonary (lung) function, inhibit the synthesis and release of TXA2 with no side effects], Oldenlandia umbellate (Hedyotis umbellate), a novel nutritional formula (NNF) enriched in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; an omega – 3 fatty acid) and gamma-linolenic acid (an omega – 6 fatty acid) and antioxidants [a human study on children, 6 – 14 years of age, with mild to moderate persistent asthma concluded that both novel nutritional formula (NNF; enriched in eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and gamma-linolenic fatty acids and antioxidants) and control groups demonstrated improvement in asthma-free days. NNF-treated group had reduced biomarkers of disease activity. Rapid peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) fatty acid composition changes reflected an anti-inflammatory profile. Dietary supplementation with NNF was safe and well tolerated], omega – 3 fatty acids // fish oil (in one small, well-designed clinical study of 29 children with asthma, those who took fish oil supplements rich in EPA and DHA for 10 months reduced their symptoms, compared to children who took placebo), omega – 6 fatty acids [a study that investigated whether dietary gamma linolenic acid (GLA; from borage oil) would suppress biosynthesis of PMN-LTB4 isolated from asthma patients and attenuate asthma demonstrated dietary fatty acid modulation of endogenous inflammatory mediators without side effects and thus further explorations are needed into the roles of gamma linolenic acid (GLA; an omega – 6 fatty acid) at higher doses on leukotrienes and asthma], French maritime pine bark extract – Pycnogenol (the results of a study demonstrated the efficacy of Pycnogenol as an adjunct in the management of mild-to-moderate childhood asthma), Selenium (people with asthma tend to have low blood levels of selenium// in a study of 24 people with asthma, those who took selenium supplements for 14 weeks had fewer symptoms compared to those who took placebo// the concept of low Se status as a potential risk factor for increased prevalence or severity of asthma is based on the role that Se, through its incorporation into selenoproteins, plays as a potent antioxidant capable of augmenting the oxidative stress that accompanies asthma// a study concluded that there is some indication that selenium supplementation may be a useful adjunct to medication for patients with chronic asthma), bromelain [the results of a study on mice suggest that bromelain has a therapeutic effect in established allergic airway disease (AAD), which may translate into an effective adjunctive therapy in patients with similar conditions, such as allergic asthma, who have chosen to initiate treatment after the onset of symptoms], ginkgo biloba

 

Astringents (that tend to shrink or constrict body tissues, usually locally after topical application):  Plantago, tannins, Bilberry (it contains tannins), blackberry leaf, raspberry leaf, yarrow (Achillea millefolium)

 

 

Atherogenic index (AI) reduction (see also ΄΄Atherosclerosis// atheromatosis prevention΄΄): Sea – backthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides// a study suggested that Hippophae rhamnoides is an effective antioxidant, and one of the important mechanisms of Hippophae rhamnoides in anti-atherosclerosis reported recently may be closely related to the action of anti-lipid peroxidation// another study showed that Seabuckthorn (SBT) seed oil feeding to normal rabbits for 18 days caused a significant decline in plasma cholesterol, LDL-C (LDL – cholesterol// ΄΄bad΄΄ cholesterol), atherogenic index (AI) and LDL//HDL ratio – also the HDL-C (HDL – cholesterol// ΄΄good΄΄ cholesterol) levels, HDL-C//TC ratio (HTR) and vasorelaxant activity of the aorta were significantly increased], Spirulina, Taraxacum officinale [the common dandelion// a study showed that treatment with dandelion root and leaf positively changed plasma antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid profiles in cholesterol-fed rabbits, and thus may have potential hypolipidemic (blood lipids (fats) lowering) and antioxidant effects – thus andelion root and leaf could protect against oxidative stress linked atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) and decrease the atherogenic index]

 

Atheromatosis: see ΄΄Atherosclerosis// atheromatosis prevention΄΄

 

Atherosclerosis/ arteriosclerosis (also known as arteriosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD) is a condition in which an artery wall thickens as a result of the accumulation of fatty materials such as cholesterol; atherosclerosis is the buildup of plaque in the arteries leading to the hardening of the arteries and that can block arteries and lead to heart attack or stroke)// atheromatosis [the accumulation and inflammation in the artery wall// the development of plaque and blood clots, which can clog arteries.// Atheroma is accumulation and inflammation in the artery wall. It occurs in atheromatosis that is made mostly from macrophage cells, and/or debris from lipids (such as cholesterol), calcium, and connective tissue] prevention// antiatherogenic properties [see also ΄΄Atherogenic index (AI) reduction΄΄, ΄΄Coronary heart disease prevention΄΄, ΄΄Attenuation of the reduction on arterial compliance΄΄ and ΄΄Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) decrease΄΄]: apple [In a study, thirty two male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet, high cholesterol diet (%1 cholesterol), 1% cholesterol supplemented with 5 ml apple juice (low dose) and 1% cholesterol supplemented with 10 ml apple juice (high dose) for 2 months. The results showed that both doses of apple juice significantly were decreased total cholesterol (TC), TG (triglycerides), CRP, fibrinogen, factor VII levels, atherosclerotic lesion in right and left coronary arteries and increased nitrite and nitrate compared to cholesterolemic diet. Also using 10 ml apple juice caused significant reduction in LDL-C (LDL – cholesterol; also known as ‘bad’ cholesterol) and increase HDL-C (HDL – cholesterol; also known as ‘good’ cholesterol), but 5 ml apple juice did not change these factors. Significant differences were observed between 5 and 10 ml apple juice groups by LDL-C. In conclusion, apple juice can effectively prevent the progress of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). This is likely due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of apple juice], Acai palm (berry) [a study on rabbits concluded that consumption of Euterpe Oleracea (acai palm) extract markedly improved the lipid profile and attenuated atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries); these effects were related in part to a better balance in the synthesis and absorption of sterols], anthocyanins, artichoke [a human study showed clear evidence to recommend artichoke dry extract CY450 for treating hyperlipoproteinemia (high blood lipids and//or lipoproteins) and, thus, prevent atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) and coronary heart disease.// Another human study concluded that Artichoke leaf extract (ALE) consumption resulted in a modest but favorable statistically significant difference in total cholesterol after 12 weeks], beta – glucans, anthocyanidins [Bilberry fruits contain flavonoid compounds called anthocyanidins. Bilberry has been used traditionally to treat heart disease, but only animal and in vitro studies have been done. Animal studies have found that anthocyanidins and other flavonoids may strengthen blood vessels, improve circulation, and prevent LDL cholesterol (΄΄bad΄΄ cholesterol) from being damaged (which may cause blood clots to form in arteries)], black tea, catechins// epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) [a study in mice showed that EGCG reduced cuff-induced evolving atherosclerotic plaque size at 21 and 42 days by 55% and 73%, respectively, compared with PBS treatment; conversely, EGCG had no effect on established lesions in the aortic sinuses or the rest of the aorta), Coenzyme Q10, coffee [an in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo study concluded that coffee intake might have an antiatherogenic property (may prevent atheromatosis i.e the accumulation and inflammation in the artery wall// the development of plaque and blood clots, which can clog arteries) by increasing ABCG1 and SR-BI expression and enhancing HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from the macrophages via its plasma phenolic acids], Concord grape juice [a study in rabbits concluded that daily consumption of Concord grape juice (CGJ) attenuates hypercholesterolemia (high blood cholesterol)  enhanced platelet aggregation (PA), blood pressure, total serum cholesterol and development of atheroma in rabbits (atheroma is accumulation and inflammation in the artery wall. It occurs in atheromatosis that is made mostly from macrophage cells, and/or debris from lipids (such as cholesterol), calcium, and connective tissue)], Cranberries, turmeric/curcumin [early studies suggested that turmeric may help prevent atherosclerosis; in animal studies, an extract of turmeric lowered cholesterol levels and kept LDL cholesterol (΄΄bad΄΄ cholesterol) from building up in blood vessels; because it stops platelets from clumping together, turmeric may also prevent blood clots from building up along the walls of arteries], chlorella [a study on male Japanese White rabbits showed that in the Chlorella group which was administered a high-cholesterol diet containing 1% powdered Chlorella vulgaris, increase of total and beta-lipoprotein cholesterol level was suppressed; furthermore, the development of aortic atheromatous lesions was significantly inhibited], flavonoids [A study in middle-aged Finnish men showed that the total flavonoid intake was inversely associated with the mean common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT). Out of different flavonoid subclasses, flavan-3-ols were inversely associated with CCA-IMT after statistical adjustment. There was a trend for an inverse association between intake of flavonols and mean CCA-IMT. The study concluded that high intake of flavonoids is associated with decreased carotid atherosclerosis in middle-aged Finnish men], garlic// aged garlic extract (AGE; also known as ‘Kyolic’ [As people age, their arteries tend to lose their ability to stretch and flex with age. Garlic seems to reduce this effect.// One study that lasted 4 years found that people who took 900 mg daily of standardized garlic powder slowed the development of atherosclerosis; garlic also seems to act as a blood-thinner, which may help prevent heart attacks and strokes./// A study concluded that supplementation of garlic oil along with cholesterol significantly inhibited the hypercholesterolaemia, decreased tissue cholesterol and minimised the atheromatous changes in the aorta./// Aged garlic extract (AGE) inhibits lipid peroxidation, reducing ischemic/reperfusion damage and inhibiting oxidative modification of LDL, thus protecting endothelial cells from the injury by the oxidized molecules, which contributes to atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries)], ginger, chondroitin sulphate, grape fruit [a study concluded that dietary grapefruit pectin supplementation inhibits hypercholesterolemia (high blood cholesterol) and appears to be proportionately protective against atherosclerosis], green tea (researchers estimate that the rate of heart attack decreases by 11% with consumption of 3 cups of tea per day// a study concluded that there is an in vivo anti-oxidative effect for green tea and an influence of green tea on atherosclerotic biological markers), hawthorn (a study concluded that hawthorn extracts may also be employed in the prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of such conditions as endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, or prevention of restenosis//reocclusion following peripheral endovascular treatment), Ligusticum wallichii [Chuanxiong// a study showed that Ligusticum wallichii had protective effects on cerebral vessels], alpha – lipoic acid, lycopene [studies showed that the circulating levels of lycopene play some role with regard to cardiovascular health in Finland, at least in men and concluded that circulating levels of lycopene, a biomarker of tomato-rich food, may play a role in early stages of atherogenesis and may have clinical and public health relevance// another study concluded that a low serum lycopene concentration is associated with a higher intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CCA-IMT) in middle-aged men from eastern Finland – thus, serum lycopene concentration may play a role in the early stages of atherosclerosis], Mastic - especially the one from Chios island of Greece, Extra – Virgin olive oil (a study on Golden Syrian hamsters showed that in the ascending aorta, lesion size doubled in animals fed on coconut oil, but stabilized in those fed on olive oil. In the aortic arch, lesion size decreased linearly with the greatest reduction being seen in the olive-oil-fed animals), omega – 3 fatty acids // fish oil (fish oil appears to help prevent and treat atherosclerosis by slowing the development of plaque and blood clots, which can clog arteries// epidemiologic studies, studies of mechanisms of action, and many animal studies indicate that dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids has antiatherosclerotic potential// a study concluded that dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids modestly mitigates the course of coronary atherosclerosis in humans), flaxseed oil (linseed) oil (it contains the highest level of the omega – 3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid (ALA), among vegetable oils// it  may be beneficial for reducing inflammation leading to atherosclerosis, preventing heart disease and arrhythmia./// Dietary flaxseed can retard the progression of atherosclerotic plaques. In a study, the therapeutic potential of dietary flaxseed on atherosclerotic plaque regression and vascular contractile function was evaluated using a novel rabbit model. Rabbits were randomly assigned to receive either a regular diet for 12 weeks (group I) or a 1% cholesterol-supplemented diet for 4 weeks followed by a regular diet for 8 weeks (group II). The remaining experimental animals were treated as in group II but were fed for an additional 14 weeks with either a regular diet (group III) or a 10% flaxseed-supplemented diet (group IV). Animals in group II showed clear evidence of plaque growth stabilization. Their vessels also exhibited significantly lower norepinephrine-induced contraction and an impaired relaxation response to acetylcholine compared with animals in group I. Dietary flaxseed supplementation resulted in a significant about 40% reduction in plaque formation. Animals in both groups II and III displayed improved contraction and endothelium-dependent vessel relaxation], Psyllium [Ispaghula// the oil in the seed embryo contains 50% linoleic acid (LA// an unsaturated omega 6 fatty axid) and has been used as a preventative of atherosclerosis], Policosanol [a study showed that policosanol, but not atorvastatin, however, significantly increased serum HDL-C (HDL – cholesterol, ΄΄good΄΄ cholesterol) levels, whereas both drugs similarly reduced atherogenic ratios and serum triglycerides], pomegranate [preliminary studies have demonstrated that juice of the pomegranate may be effective in reducing heart disease risk factors, including LDL oxidation, macrophage oxidative status, and foam cell formation// pomegranate juice appears to protect LDL cholesterol (΄΄bad΄΄ cholesterol) from damage// one study of mice with atherosclerosis found that pomegranate juice slowed the progression of plaque formation// a few small studies in people found that pomegranate juice improved blood flow and kept arteries from becoming thick and stiff// pomegranate juice has been shown to exert significant antiatherogenic, antioxidant, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory effects and it significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion areas in immune-deficient mice and intima media thickness in cardiac patients on medications// another study concluded that pomegranate juice had potent antiatherogenic effects in healthy humans and in atherosclerotic mice that may be attributable to its antioxidative properties// pomegranate juice (PJ) was shown to inhibit macrophage foam cell formation and development of atherosclerotic lesions. A study concluded that pomegranate juice (PJ) – mediated suppression of Ox-LDL degradation and of cholesterol biosynthesis in macrophages can lead to reduced cellular cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation], Prebiotics, Proanthocyanidins// oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes (OPCs), Quercetin// resveratrol// catechins (animal and some population-based studies suggest that the flavonoids quercetin, resveratrol, and catechins, all found in high concentration in red wine, may help reduce the risk of atherosclerosis// these nutrients appear to protect against the damage caused by LDL cholesterol and may help prevent death from heart disease), Red wine (a study demonstrated that red wines strongly inhibit the synthesis of endothelin-1, a vasoactive peptide that is crucial in the development of coronary atherosclerosis// another study showed that resveratrol and phytochemicals in red wine can suppress atherosclerosis without affecting plasma lipid levels), Reishi mushroom [Lingzhi mushroom], Resveratrol (a study showed that resveratrol supplements attenuated the presence of atherosclerotic lesions and periarterial fat deposition in the apo E(-//-) mice), Sea – backthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides// a study suggested that Hippophae rhamnoides is an effective antioxidant, and one of the important mechanisms of Hippophae rhamnoides in anti-atherosclerosis reported recently may be closely related to the action of anti-lipid peroxidation// another study showed that Seabuckthorn (SBT) seed oil feeding to normal rabbits for 18 days caused a significant decline in plasma cholesterol, LDL-C (LDL – cholesterol// ΄΄bad΄΄ cholesterol), atherogenic index (AI) and LDL//HDL ratio – also the HDL-C (HDL – cholesterol// ΄΄good΄΄cholesterol) levels, HDL-C//TC ratio (HTR) and vasorelaxant activity of the aorta were significantly increased], Selenium (being deficient in selenium seems to make atherosclerosis worse), Sesame oil [lignans// a study on rats showed that sesame oil-containing diet significantly reduced the atherosclerotic lesion formation and plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL – cholesterol (΄΄bad΄΄ cholesterol) levels in LDLR -//- mice and suggested that sesame oil could inhibit atherosclerosis lesion formation effectively, perhaps because of the synergistic actions of fatty acid and non-saponifiable components], Phytosterols [stanol esters (plant stanol esters) & plant sterols// phytosterol (plant sterol) is plant-based compound that can compete with dietary cholesterol to be absorbed by the intestines, resulting in lower blood cholesterol levels// studies have shown that plant sterols//stanols included with a heart healthy eating plan may reduce the risk for heart disease// the National Cholesterol Education//Adult Treatment III program guidelines recommend plant sterols//plant stanols as part of a heart healthy eating plan// a study in mice concluded that: 1) increased cholesterol-standardized serum plant sterol concentrations are not atherogenic 2) adding plant sterols//stanols to atorvastatin (a ΄΄statin΄΄ drug) further inhibits lesion formation, and 3) plant sterols//stanols inhibit the progression or even induce the regression of existing lesions], Strawberries [a human study concluded that strawberry supplementation reduced oxidative damage to LDL while maintaining reductions in blood lipids and enhancing diet palatability – thus, added fruit may improve the overall utility of diets designed to lower coronary heart disease risk// another study showed that higher strawberry intake may slightly reduce the likelihood of having elevated CRP levels// studies have shown that strawberries lower total and LDL-cholesterol (΄΄bad΄΄ cholesterol) and decrease surrogate biomarkers of atherosclerosis (malondialdehyde and adhesion molecules)// another human study showed that short-term freeze-dried strawberry supplementation improved selected atherosclerotic risk factors, including dyslipidemia (abnormal lipids (fats) levels in the blood) and circulating adhesion molecules in subjects with metabolic syndrome// another study suggested that regular consumption of strawberry, a polyphenolic- and antioxidant-rich fruit, may provide protection from high carbohydrate//fat meal-induced increases in fibrinolytic and inflammatory factors in at-risk men and women], Sulforaphane & isothiocyanates (found e.g. in broccoli sprouts// preliminary studies indicate sulforaphane may protect the heart from vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis// a study showed that sulforaphane, at a relatively low concentration, can reduce inflammatory activation of endothelial cells at atherosusceptible sites by increasing Nrf2 activity via inhibition of Keap-1// thus sulforaphane is an example of a targeted therapeutic intervention that enhances expression of protective, anti-inflammatory transcripts at atherosusceptible sites and may, in the future, have clinical utility for the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular inflammation), Tannins (a study showed that cells treated with tannin extracted and purified from ground Sumac (Rhus coriaria) showed significant reduction (62%) of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and concluded that it possesses potent antimigratory activity. Sumac may have potential for the prevention or treatment of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations], Taraxacum officinale [the common dandelion// a study showed that treatment with dandelion root and leaf positively changed plasma antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid profiles in cholesterol-fed rabbits, and thus may have potential hypolipidemic (blood lipids (fats) lowering) and antioxidant effects – thus andelion root and leaf could protect against oxidative stress linked atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) and decrease the atherogenic index], carnosine [the data of a study in mice indicate lipoxidation-derived reactive carbonyl species (RCS) quenching with a D-carnosine ester, D-carnosine octylester, was highly effective in attenuating experimental atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) and renal (kidney) disease by reducing carbonyl stress and inflammation and that this may represent a promising therapeutic strategy in humans], dark chocolate [A human study concluded that dark chocolate induces coronary vasodilation, improves coronary vascular function, and decreases platelet adhesion 2 hours after consumption. These immediate beneficial effects are accompanied by a significant reduction of serum oxidative stress and are positively correlated with changes in serum epicatechin concentration.// Nitric oxide (NO) plays a pivotal role in regulating vascular tone. Different studies show endothelial function is impaired during hyperglycemia. Dark chocolate increases flow-mediated dilation in healthy and hypertensive subjects with and without glucose intolerance.// The results of a human study suggest that cocoa flavanols may contribute to vascular health by reducing the postprandial (after a meal) impairment of arterial function associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.// Note: some chocolate products may be high in fat, sugar, and calories, which can increase the risk for heart disease],

 

 

Atopic dermatitis (AD; a type if eczema; see also ΄΄Eczema΄΄; Also see ΄΄Atopic dermatitis on infants – prevention΄΄./// atopic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing dermatitis (skin disease) characterized by increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and subjective symptoms of pruritus, inflammation, skin sensitivity, and dryness]: Liquorice [licorice; the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra// (topical preperations)// In one study, licorice gel, applied topically, helped relieve symptoms of itching, swelling, and redness. A gel with 2% licorice worked better than a gel with 1% licorice.// Licorice has some skin-lightening activity, may be helpful in patients with post - inflammatory hyper-pigmentation), hyaluronic acid [dry, scaly skin (xerosis), such as the one that is caused by atopic dermatitis, may be treated with skin lotion containing sodium hyaluronate], chamomile, hempseed oil [it is pressed from the seed of the hemp (cannabis) plant irrespective of the strain of cannabis// about 30–35% of the weight of hempseed is an edible oil that contains about 80% essential fatty acids (EFAs)// i.e., linoleic acid (LA; an omega – 6 fatty acid) and 55%, alpha – linolenic acid (ALA; an omega- 3 fatty acid)], omega – 6 fatty acids (a human study concluded that gamma linolenic acid (GLA; an omega – 6 fatty acid) – enriched food appears to be safe and to improve skin barrier function in subjects with dry skin conditions and mild atopic dermatitis), Schisandra chinensis [Wu wei zi// a study showed that Schizandra chinensis extract markedly suppressed DNCB-induced dermatitis, as determined by a count of scratching frequency// measurement of IgE, IgM, and histamine levels in serum// and histological observation of epidermal hyperplasia and mast-cell infiltration// and concluded that Schizandra chinensis extract (SCE) appears useful for suppression of atopic dermatitis (AD), even though the active pathway(s) remain unknown], Sea – backthorn (an ingredient of the oil, palmitoleic acid, is a component of skin and it is considered a valuable topical agent for treating systemic skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis), Astragalus membranaceus [a study in mice showed that  Astragalus membranaceus (AM) is effective for treating atopic dermatitis (AD) by regulating cytokines; thus AM may be an alternative or complementary therapeutic option for treating patients with AD], bilberry (a study in mice concluded the anthocyanin-rich but not anthocyanidin-rich bilberry extract may be a useful dietary supplement for skin diseases involving pruritic (with itching) symptoms, such as chronic allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and rhinitis), Calendula officinalis (Calendula applied to the skin, particularly if the affected area is inflamed; this remedy soothes but does not cure the skin condition), Feverfew

Atopic dermatitis on infants – prevention: black currant [A study that assessed the cytokines in breast milk of mothers of newborn infants and their associations with black currant seed oil (BCSO) supplementation during pregnancy, mother's atopic status and the development of infant's atopic dermatitis showed that BCSO intervention group had decreased level of IL-4 and elevated level of IFN-γ in breast milk as compared to olive oil group. Mothers who had atopic dermatitis had significantly decreased levels of IL-10 in breast milk. Breast milk of the mothers of the children who developed atopic dermatitis had lower levels of IFN-γ as compared to the breast milk of the mothers of the children without dermatitis. The study concluded that dietary intervention with black currant seed oil (BCSO) had immunomodulatory effects on breast milk cytokine production towards Th2 to Th1 immunodeviation]

 

 

 

 

Attention deficit//hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) [see also ΄΄Neurological problems (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism and X – linked mental retardation) associated with the Xp22.3-pter X chromosome region – related to X – chromosome – linked ichthyosis]: essential fatty acids (studies suggest that children with ADHD have lower levels of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids), American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) (one preliminary study suggests that American ginseng, in combination with Ginkgo biloba may help treat ADHD), American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) & Ginkgo biloba [there is preliminary evidence that a specific combination product (AD-fX, CV Technologies, Canada) containing ginkgo leaf extract, in combination with American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), might help improve ADHD symptoms such as anxiety, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness in 3 to 17 year-old children./// One preliminary study suggests that American ginseng, in combination with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), may help treat ADHD], melatonin [some evidence suggests that melatonin may help promote sleep in children in ADHD, although it does not seem to improve the behavioral symptoms of ADHD// trials on ADHD patients showed that when melatonin supplements were administered on these patients that were taking methylphenidate, the time needed to fall asleep was reduced// a study concluded that melatonin remains an effective therapy on the long term for the treatment of chronic sleep onset insomnia (CSOI) in children with attention-deficit//hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and has no safety concerns], N – acetylcysteine, omega – 3 fatty acids// fish oil [children with attention deficit//hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have low levels of certain essential fatty acids (including EPA and DHA)// in a clinical study of nearly 100 boys, those with lower levels of omega-3 fatty acids had more learning and behavioral problems (such as temper tantrums and sleep disturbances) than boys with normal omega-3 fatty acid levels// a few studies have found that omega-3 fatty acids helped improve behavioral symptoms], combined ω3 (omega – 3) and ω6 (omega – 6) (fatty acids) ([In a study, children 6 – 12 years with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) being treated with methylphenidate were administered a combined